Chapters 71 to 137

Devi Sanatan Amrit


Markandeya said: - Having sent that woman to the house of her husband, the king also began to think, sighing, "what shall be good for me under these circumstances. (1) That high-minded (Rishi) spoke to me of my pain for my unworthiness to receive the offerings meet for a guest (of my position); and this night-walker spoke of my disqualification, referring to the case of the Brahmana. (2) Such am I, what shall I do? That wife of mine has been forsaken by me. Or shall I ask that most superior Muni possessed with an illumined vision? (3) Thus meditating, that lord, of the earth getting into that chariot of his, went there where the righteous great Muni who knows the three periods of time (i.e. the past, the present, and the future) lived. (4) Getting down from the chariot, he then approaching him and making due obeisance, related his interview with the Rakshasa exactly as it happened, (5) and similarly his interview with the wife of the Brahmana, and her cure of her evil disposition, and also her despatch to her husband's house, and that which was the object of his visit. (6)

The Rishi said: - That which has been done by thee, O Lord of men, as also the object of thy coming to me, all this was already known by me. (7) Ask me now, - what is to be done by me, I am anxious in mind, on thy coming to me. Hear that which is to be done by thee, O lord of earth. (8) The wife is the most powerful incentive of men to the observance of the law and the attainment of merit; especially is the law forsaken on her being forsaken. (9) The wifeless man, O king, is not entitled to perform his sacrificial duties, be he, O king, a Brahmana, Kshatriya or Vaishya. In forsaking thy wife thou hast not done a graceful act; for even as wives cannot desert their husbands, so too men cannot forsake their wives. (11)

The King said: - O thou possesser of six great qualities the Bhagas, what shall I do? This is the result of my actions. Because she was not favourably disposed towards me who was always lovingly inclined towards her, therefore, has she been forsaken by me. (12) Whatever she did I forbore all that with a burning heart, O possesser of the six great qualities, with my mind always afraid of the pain of her separation. (13) Now that she has been left in the forest I know not where she has gone, or whether she has been eaten in the jungle by lions or tigers or Rakshasas. (14)

The Rishi said: - She has not been eaten, O lord of the earth, by the lion or tiger or Rakshasa, she is now living in the lower region with her character unsullied. (15)

The Rishi said: - The king of serpents, known as Kapotaka, lives in the nether regions; that beautiful young lady, forsaken by thee, and roving about in that great forest was seen by him, who knew her story, and was moved by love towards her, - and taken to the nether regions. (16-18) His daughter with beautiful eye-brows was Nanda by name, O lord of the world, and the wife of this king of the serpents, possessed of intelligence, was Manorama, by name. (19) This beautiful (lady) will become the co-wife of my mother, - (she thought), and seen by her, she was taken to her own house and artfully concealed in the female apartment. (20) When besought, Nanda did not reply to the king; then the father told that daughter "thou shalt be dumb". (21) Thus was his daughter cursed by him, and she, the chaste one, (thy wife) O lord of the earth! captured and taken by that lord of the serpents, lives there (now). (22)

Markandeya said: - Then the king overcome with great joy asked him the most superior among the twice-born the cause of his misfortune so far as his wife was concerned. (23)

The King said: - O thou possessor of the six great qualities, the Bhagas, the affection of the whole world towards me is very great. What then is the cause, for which my own wife is not overhanging towards me. (24) O thou great Muni, my love towards her is very great, even more than that towards my own life, but she is ill-disposed towards me, tell me the cause of it, O thou twice-born one. (25)

The Rishi said: - At the time of taking her hand (i.e. thy marriage) thou wert looked upon by the Sun, the Venus, and the Saturn, and thy wife by the Mercury, and the Jupiter. (26) At that moment the moon became hers, while similarly the son of the moon became yours, these two are mutually opposed; therefore, O king, is thy misfortune. (27) Therefore go and govern the earth according to the injunctions of thy order and class; taking thy wife as thy helpmate perform all sacrificial and other religious duties. (28)

Markandeya said: - Being thus spoken to, Uttama, the governor of the earth, having saluted this (Brahman) and then getting upon his chariot, went to his own city. (29)


Markandeya said: - Then having found his own city the king saw that twice-born one with his wife who had attained an excellent disposition, and was full of delight. (1)

The Brahmana said: - O thou most superior king, I am gratified, for the law is maintained unto me by thee who knowest the law and who brought my wife to me. (2)

The King said: - Thou art gratified, O most superior among twice-born persons, owing to the due observance of the law of my order, but we, O Brahmana, whose wife is not in the house, are in a most painful situation. (3)

The Brahmana said: - If she has been, O Lord of men, eaten up by wild animals in the woods, what can be done by her. Why there is not the hand of some other (maiden) taken by thee (in marriage). Owing to thy subjection to anger the law is not being observed by thee. (4)

The King said: - My love has not been devoured by wild animals; she lives, in truth, with unblemished character. What shall I do now? (5)

The Brahmana said: - If thy wife lives and is not attached to any other person then why is the sin, caused by the absence of the wife, committed by thee. (6)

The King said: - Even if brought she will always, O Brahmana, be opposed to me, she is only for my sorrow and not for my happiness - she has no love for me. Do thou so try that she may be subject to me. (7)

The Brahmana said: - For her love towards thee, I shall perform that sacrifice, called Mitravinda, which great and beneficial sacrifice is performed by those who desire love. (8) That sacrifice is the worker of superior love among husband and wife who are not loved by each other. For thy benefit I shall perform that sacrifice. (9) O Lord of the earth, bring her, thy wife, of beautiful eye-brows, from where she exists; she will give thee most superior happiness. (10)

Markandeya said: - Being thus spoken to, he, the lord of the world, brought the endless objects (needful for the sacrifice) and he, that most superior Brahmin also performed that sacrifice - (yajna). (11) With a view to work up the wife of that king, that superior person among the twice-born, again and again performed that sacrifice seven times. (12) When that great Muni felt that the love of her (the queen) had been fully established on her own husband, then that Brahmana told the lord of men. (13) "O thou most superior among men, bring her, who is the object of thy love, near thee; and enjoy the objects of pleasure with her, and perform sacrifices likewise being honoured (by her). (14)

Markandeya said: - Being thus spoken to, by that Brahmana, the ruler of the world, at that time, overcome with wonder, then remembered that Rakshasa of great energy and steadfast resolution. (15) O great Muni, remembered by him at that time, that (Rakshasa), immediately approaching the lord of men, after salutation said, - "What may I do"? (16) Then having been informed in detail by that lord of men, going to the nether regions and securing the wife of the king, he came back to him. (17) Thus brought she beheld then her lord with great love, and said again and again, being full of delight - "Be gracious". (18) Then that king embracing that honoured one with great eagerness exclaimed - "I am always gracious to thee, my love, why then dost thou say so again". (19)

The Wife said: - If thy mind is exceedingly gracious towards me, O lord of men, then I beg this of thee, "do thou do this which is the object of my worship". (20)

The King said: - Tell me without fear, whatever is desired by thee of me, - that will not be unattainable, O thou timid one; there is no doubt of it, that I am under thy control. (21)

The Wife said: - For my sake by that serpent has his daughter, my friend, been cursed -saying, - "thou shalt be dumb," and she too has come by dumbness. (22) If thou canst effect a remedy of her, for the removal of her dumbness, moved by thy love for me, what great good wilt thou then do unto me. (23)

Markandeya said: - Then that king asked that Brahmana "under the circumstance what kind of work (sacrifice) is to be performed for the remedy of that dumbness," and he also said that to the king. (24)

The Brahmana said: - In obedience to thy order, O lord of the earth, I shall perform the Saraswati sacrifice and owing to the setting in of the power of speech of Nanda this thy wife shall be released of her debt (of gratitude). (25)

Markandeya said: - That most superior, among twice-born persons for that object, performed the sacrifice called Saraswati and with concentrated mind repeated the Saraswati Suktas. (26) Then Garga told her, whose power of speech had began to work, in the nether world, "this

good, very hard to work, has been done thee, by the husband of thy friend". (27) Coming by this knowledge, Nanda, the self begotten daughter of the serpent, having quickly found that city and then having embraced her friend the queen, and having also done honour to that ruler of the earth, and having repeatedly uttered, benedictions (on them), - the serpent woman taking her seat spoke (thus) sweetly. (28-29) "By the good that has just been done to me by thee, O brave one, my heart has been drawn to thee. Hear what I speak. (30) O thou lord of men, thou shalt have a son endowed with great energy, on this earth; his arms shall be invincible. (31) He shall know the meaning and significance of all scriptures and shall be devoted to the law and the sacrifices; that intelligent one shall be a Manu, the lord of Manwantara". (32) Thus having uttered this blessing on him, the daughter of the king of serpents, O Muni, after embracing her friend duly went away to the nether regions. (33) There a long period passed of that king enjoying life with her (the queen) and governing his subjects. (34) Then a son was born of that high-souled king unto her, just as the full-diced and beautiful moon appears on the full moon night. (35) On the birth of that high-souled one all the people found great delight and the flutes of the Gods were played and flowers fell in a shower. (36) Munis, having come (to see him) and seeing the loveliness of his limbs, and his future character, gave him the name - Auttama. (37) 'This one is born in a good family, similarly in a good time, and unto Uttama, and is of a good form, therefore he shall be Auttama'. (38)

Markandeya said: - Then this one, the son of Uttama, and similarly known by the name of Auttama, became Manu; hear of his prowess from me. (39) Whoever, that hears daily the whole of the story of Uttama, and that of birth of Auttama, shall never become the object of men's ill-will. (40) Of him who shall hear or read these, there shall never be any separation with objects of his desires or wives, or sons, or friends. (41) Hear, O Brahman, of his Manwantara, from me as also of him who is the Indra (in that Manwantara) and who are the Gods and who are Rishis. (42)


Markandeya said: - Listen to me who am relating (to you) the gods, the lord of the gods, the Rishis, and the kings in this Manwantara, the third one, of the Auttama (Manu). (1) The gods were Swadhamas, they whose works imitated their names; (i.e., whose conduct bore testimony to the truth of their names) and a second class named Satyas were similarly of the species of the celestials; and also a third class, similarly of the species of the gods, were O most superior Muni, called Shivas; they were of the nature of Shiva himself, and were reputed to have been the destroyers of sin. (2-3) And a fourth class of the species of the gods, O thou superior Muni, named Pratardaas, are also spoken of in connection with the Manwantara of the Manu Auttama. (4) A fifth class there was also in that (Manwantara), O thou twice-born one, of the species of the gods, (called) the Bashabartinas; and all these, O great Muni! were of the nature indicated by their names. (5) These are known to have been the five classes of gods, all eaters of sacrifices, in this Manwantara, O thou most superior among men; all these were the twelve species of gods. (6) Their lord, the possessor of the eight good qualities of kindness and known by the name of Sushanti, having gathered togethered the hundred sacrifices, became the lord in the three worlds. (7) Hymns adorned with the letters of their name are sung by men in this earth, even to this day, for the cure of diseases. (8) The lovely lord of the gods was Sushanti, with the gods Shivas, Satyas and others and similarly Bashabartins. (9) Of that Manu there were sons, strong and powerful and famous like the gods, - namely, Aja, Parashuchi, and Divya. (10) As long as the Manwantara of that most energetic Manu lasted his offsprings, being lords of men, governed the whole world. (11) The seven sons of that great souled one, who was the most superior person among men by their own energy born of penance, became, in that Manwantara the seven principal Rishis. (12) This is the third Manwantara, now related to you by me; the Tamasa is said to be the fourth Manwantara. (13) O Brahman, hear from we who will relate to you (presently) the birth of that Manu, by whose fame, though he was born of a low caste mother, the whole world was illumined. (14) The character of the others as well as of his, and likewise

his birth, and the influence of these high-souled ones should be known as beyond the comprehension of the senses. (15)


Markandeya said: - There was on earth a king Swarastra by name, famous, and full of energy, the performer of many sacrifices, wise, and unconquerable in battle. (1) Worshipped by his councillor the sun-god gave him long life, and O thou twice-born one, his wives were a hundred in number. (2) Of him, the long-lived one, the wives were not long-lived, O Muni! and in time the servants and the councillors similarly all were dead. (3) In this way separated from his wives as also from his attendants who were born with him, being restless in mind he began to lose his energy day by day. (4) Then at that time, (a king) by name Bimardda deposed him from his kingdom, - who had lost his vigour and was sad, having been forsaken by most intimate attendants. (5) He, the possesser of the eight good qualities, deposed from his kingdom, with his mind bowed down by sorrow and bereavement, going to the forest, and living on the banks of the river Vitasta, practised penances. (6) He practised the penance of the five fires in summer, and got himself wetted in the waters of the clouds during the rains, and lying in water during winter, he lived without food, taking the vow of self-control. (7) Then while he was thus practising the penances, during one rainy season, there was a great deluge owing to an incessant down-pour from the clouds. (8) The quarters could not be distinguished, neither the east, nor the south nor the west, nor the north; everything seemed to be covered with darkness. (9) Then owing to the great deluge that king was carried away by the extremely rapid current of the river, and though praying for rescue he did not find its banks. (10) Next the lord of the earth, carried to a long distance by the current of water, came across a deer in that water; and he caught her by the tail. (11) By that craft (of a tail) was he conducted here and there, in that darkness, on this earth, and at last he found land. (12) Having crossed extensive and deep sloughs, pulled by that deer, that king found another pleasant forest. (13) In that darkness did the deer draw the lord of the world attached to her tail, and grown lean (and weak) by cruel austerities. (14) Walking about again and again in that darkness, his mind being moved by passion, he found great pleasure in her touch. (15) In that forest knowing that lord of men full of love (towards her) and engaged in touching her back, that deer (thus) spoke to him. (16) "Why dost thou touch my back with trembling hands, O lord of men? This action has taken a contrary course. (17) Thy mind, O lord, is not set on an unworthy object; thy connection with me is not forbidden - but this Lola stands in the way of my union with thee. (18)

Markandeya said: - Hearing this speech of that deer the lord of the world, moved by curiosity, spoke this word to the deer. (19)

The King said: - Tell me who thou art, O deer, and how dost thou speak like a human being and who again is this Lola who stands as an obstacle to thy connection with me. (20)

The deer said: - I am, O king, thy wife, known before as Utpalavati, the chief queen among a hundred wives, and the daughter of Dridadhana. (21)

The King said: - But what didst thou do by which thou hast found this birth. Why has she, who was devoted to her husband, and assiduous in the observance of the law, come by such a state. (22)

The deer said: - In my fathers's house, as a maiden, I went with my friends and companious to the forest for a pleasure-walk, and there saw a he-deer united with a female-deer. (23) Then by me, who went near, was the female deer driven away and through fear of me she went to another place; then the male deer being angry said. (24) "Thou fool, why hast thou become so mad; fie to thy evil disposition, by which is this my union frustrated!" (25) Hearing his word, who was speaking like a human being over-taken with fear I told him this - "who art thou that hast attained this birth. (26)

Then he said: - "I am the son of the Rishi Nribrittichakshu, Sutapa by name; being moved by desire for this female deer, I have become a deer. (27) And become subject to her through

love, I was also desired by her in this forest; but O evil one, we are separated by thee; therefore shall I curse thee." (28)

By me was also spoken this: - "O Muni, through ignorance I have offended thee; be gracious to me, it is not meet, O respected one, that thou shouldst curse me." (29) Thus being spoken to, O lord of the earth, that Muni also told me this: - "I will not curse thee, if I may give myself to thee." (30) By me was also spoken (this) - "I am not a female deer, thou who art of the form of a deer shalt find another female deer in the forest; therefore control thy passion for me."

(31) Being thus spoken to, he said, with his eyes becoming blood shot through anger, and his lips trembling, "I am not a female deer," by thee has this been spoken; thou, fool, shalt become a female deer. (32) Then being extremely pained I told the Muni, who, though he had been exceedingly angry, was now fully composed, again and again after salutation, - "be gracious to me!. (33) I am a mere girl, inexperienced in (the use of) words, therefore has this been spoken by me; in the absence of the father alone is the husband accepted by the maidens themselves. (34) O most excellent Muni, when my father exists, how can I accept (thee); or even if I am guilty, be gracious to me, O lord, I salute thee." (35) O thou high-souled one! to her who was saying - be gracious, be gracious, after salutation, that most superior Muni said this. (36) "The word spoken by me shall never be otherwise; thou, being dead, shalt surely become a female deer even in this forest, in the next birth. (37) In thy state as deer will the son of the Muni Siddhabirya, O thou lovely one! Lola by name, mighty of arm, find thy womb (i.e., will be born of thee). (38) Thou shalt regain thy memory of thy former birth, on that pregnancy occurring to thee, and finding thy lost memory, thou shalt speak in the tongue of men. (39) At his birth, being liberated from the state of the deer, and honoured by thy husband, thou shalt gain those lokas which are not attainable by the workers of iniquity. (40) That Lola also, mighty of energy, having killed his father's enemies and conquered the entire world, shall at last become Manu." (41) Being thus cursed, and attaining the state of the beast after death, by thy touch is this foetus born in my womb. (42) Therefore I say that thy mind, set on me, has not been misplaced, nor am I beyond the range of thy lawful love, but this Lola in my womb has created an obstacle. (43)

Markandeya said: - Then being thus spoken to that king also found supreme delight (in the thought) that my son having conquered my enemies shall be a Manu on earth. (44) Then that female deer brought forth that son endowed with all good signs, and at his birth all beings found delight. (45) More particularly this king, on the birth of this son, mighty of strength, found great delight, and that female deer, released from the curse, found most excellent lokas. (46) Then, O most excellent Muni! all the Rishis coming to him, and seeing his future glory, gave a name to that high-souled one. (47) He is born of a mother who found a Tamasa birth, and the world also is covered by Tama therefore this one will be (known as) Tamasa. (48) Then that Tamasa, nursed by that father in the forest, when his intelligence grew, spoke this to the father, O most excellent Muni!. (49) "Who art thou father, and how am I thy son, who is also my mother, and why hast thou come (here) tell me this in truth." (50)

Markandeya said: - Then the father, the lord of the world, mighty of arm, related to that son all that happened commencing with his deprivation of his own kingdom. (51) Having heard all this, he, also after worshipping the sun, found in all fullness divine and fatal arms. (52) Thus being an adept in arms, having conquered the enemies and brought them to the father, by him, established in the observance of the duties of his station, were they released, according to the order of the father. (53) His father also, having found the happiness caused by the sight of the son's face, separated from the body found the lokas earned by penances and sacrifices. (54) Having conquered all the world that king, called Tamasa, became the Manu called Tamasa; hear of his Manwantara from me, (55) of all those who were the gods, and who was the lord - the king of the gods, as also who were the Rishis, and those who were the sons of that Manu, - the rulers of the earth. (56) O Muni, the Satyas and similarly others the Siddhis, the Surupas, and likewise the Haris, these were the twenty-seven classes of gods in that (Manwantara). (57) Similarly the lord of those gods was the Lord Shikhi, mighty of strength and energy, and joined to a hundred sacrifices. (58) O Brahman, Jyotirdhama, Pritha, Kavya, Chaitra, Agni, Balaka and Pivara, these seven were the seven leading Rishis. (59) The

kings exceedingly powerful, - Nara, Kshanti, Skanda, Danta, Jangha &c., were likewise the sons, of Tamasa. (60)


Markandeya said: - The Fifth Manu is spoken of as Raivata, O Brahman; hear of his birth in detail. I shall relate it to you. (1) O thou possessor of the eight good qualities of kindness, &c, there was a Rishi known as Ritavak; of him the high-souled one, who was sonless, was born a son in the (sign of the) star Revati. (2) He performed according to the law all his sacraments commencing with that of Jatakarma (or the birth ceremony) and likewise Upanayana, and he too, O Muni became a bad character. (3) From the time when this one was born that Rishi, the most superior among Munis, was overtaken by a lingering and enduring disease. (4) His mother, laid up with leprosy and other diseases, was subjected to extreme suffering, and his father being sad thus thought (within himself). (5) "What is this?" And then that exceedingly evil-minded son of his took away the wife of another Muni's son who was attached to him. (6)

Then Ritavaka uttered with a heavy mind: - "Sonlessness of men is better than the possessor of bad sons. (7) A bad son always causes pain to the heart of the father and of the mother, and brings down (to the lower regions) his ancestors stationed in heaven. (8) He is of no good to friends, nor of any satisfaction to the manes; he is a source of misery to his father; the birth of such an evil-doer is to be lamented. (9) Blessed are they whose sons are after the mind of all the world, the workers of good unto men and of a quiet disposition, and devoted to virtuous works. (10) Our life is unhappy, and bad, and not tending towards the next world, but tending towards hell, and not heaven, owing to its connection with an evil son. (11) He causes humiliation to friends, and glorification to those who wish us ill, and also brings on old age and infirmity on the father before his time; a bad son surely does all this." (12)

Markandeya said: - That Muni, with his heart burnt by the conduct of this bad son, asked Garga the cause of all this. (13)

Ritavak said: - By me were the Vedas of old duly learnt from Subrata; having finished (the study of) the Vedas, I took unto me a wife in accordance with the injunctions of the law. (14) And by me have all sacrificial works, works, that are ordained in the Sranta Sutras, as also those by the Smritis, as also the sacrifices to fire, - been performed with my wife (as help mate); O great Muni! none of my works has been imperfectly done till now. (15) According to the law of producing progeny, not under the influence of lust but for the sake of a son, has this one been begotten by me, who was afraid of (the hell) called Put. (16) Such is this one (my son); O Muni, is it for his own fault, or through any guilt of mine, that he has become the source of misery to us and the giver of pain to my friends by his bad character. (17)

Garga said: - O most superior Muni, this thy son is born within the sphere of the star Revati; therefore has he become a source of thy misery, for he is born in an evil time. (18) There is no wrong due to thee, or to his mother, or to thy family; the cause of his evil disposition is his coming to this world within the sphere of the star Revati. (19)

Ritavak said: - As this evil disposition of my only son is due to the influence of the star Revati, may that Revati therefore even fall (from her orbit). (20)

Markandeya said: - In this way on the curse being uttered by him, the star Revati fell (from her orbit) in the presence of all the world whose hearts were over-powered by wonder. (21) The Revati star also fell on all sides of the mountain Kumuda, all of a sudden illumined the forests, the caves and the streamlets. (22) On account of that fall the mountain Kumuda also became known as Raivataka, the most pleasant mountain on all the earth. (23) The loveliness that was of that star became the lake Pankajini: - from it was born then a maiden most charming on account of her beauty. (24) O Bhagura! seeing that maiden, born of the loveliness of Revati, the Muni Pramucha gave her the name of Revati. (25) That possesser of the eight good qualities of kindness, &c., Pramucha, even in this great mountain, brought up this girl born in the vicinity of his own hermitage. (26) That Muni, seeing that maiden endowed with great beauty, come to youth, thought (within himself) who shall be the lord of this (girl)?

(27) O Muni! Thinking in this way a long time elapsed, and yet the great Muni did not come

across a bridegroom worthy of her. (28) Then to enquire of the god of fire about her bridegroom that Muni Pramucha entered the place of sacrificial fire, and to him thus questioning the eater of sacrificial offerings (i.e., the god of fire) said. (29) "The lord of the earth, Durgama by name, mighty of strength and energy, of pleasant speech and devoted to the law, shall become the husband of this one." (30)

Markandeya said: - Afterwards, O Muni, that lord of men, the wise Durgama, born of the race of Priyavrata, and mighty of strength and valour, the son of Vikramashila, born in the womb of Kalindi, came, in course of a hunting expedition, to his hermitage. (31-32) That lord of the earth, entering the hermitage and seeing her of slender limbs, calling her as his dear one, asked about that Rishi. (33)

The King said: - Where has the most superior Muni, the possessor of the six great qualities, the Bhagas, gone from this hermitage; I desire to salute him here, therefore tell me this, O thou graceful one. (34)

Markandeya said: - The Brahmin, who had gone to the place of the sacrificial fires, hearing those his words, as also his addressing her as the dear one, came out in haste. (35) That Muni saw the great-souled king, possessed of all the signs of the lord of men, and bending before him in reverence. (36) One seeing him then he addressed his disciple Gautama thus - "Gautama, bring soon due offerings for this lord of the world. (37) On the one hand this one is a king come after a long time, on the other hand he is my son-in-law, therefore it is my opinion that he is worthy of especial offerings. (38)

Markandeya said: - Then that king began to think upon the cause of his being (spoken of as) the son-in-law, and could not decide it; therefore the king accepted that offering in silence.

(39) The great Muni welcomed that lord of kings, who had taken his seat and had accepted the offering and said: - "Is everything well with thy home, (40) O lord of men, with thy treasury, with thy army, with thy friends and feudatories, thy servants and courtiers and likewise with thy ownself on which are all these established. (41) Thy wife also is well; I do not ask therefore of her, who lives here; are thy other wives well? (42)

The King said: - O thou of good vows! through thy mercy there is no bad news concerning any one belonging to me. But I am curious, O Muni, to know who is here my wife. (43)

The Rishi said: - That excellent woman Revati, the possessor of the six good qualities, and who is most beautiful in all the three worlds, is thy wife; dost thou not know her, O king? (44)

The King said: - Subhadra, the daughter of Shanta, the daughter of Kaberi, O lord, and also Sujata the daughter of Surashtra, and Kadamva the daughter of Barutha, Bipatha, and also Nandini, I know as my wives living in my home, O thou twice-born one. O thou possessor of the six great qualities, the Bhagas, I do not know who this Revati is. (45-46)

The Rishi said: - That one of superior colour who has just been spoken to by thee as the dear one, O lord of earth, has this wife of thine, worthy of all praise, been forgotten by thee?


The King said: - Truly has this been spoken by me, but O Muni, my motive was not bad. In this case it is not meet that thou, O revered one, should be angry with me - I beseech thee for it. (48)

The Rishi said: - Thou sayest truly, O lord of earth, thy meaning is not evil; O lord of men, thou didst say this moved by the god of fire. (49) The great god of fire (lit, the carrier of the sacrificial offerings) having been asked by me as - who shall be the husband of this one, by him was it said even this day that thou, O revered one, shalt be (her husband). (50) Therefore accept, O lord of men, this maiden given unto thee by me. She has also been addressed by thee as the dear one, then why dost thou hesitate? (lit think of it in thy mind) (51)

Markandeya said: - Then this lord of the earth, being thus spoken to by him, became speechless; the Rishi also made himself ready to perform her marriage rites. (52) That maiden, with her face cast down by modesty, spoke a few words to him, her father, who was making preparations, for the marriage. (53) "Father if thou art full of love for me then it is meet,

that thou shouldst show me this favour that being gracious towards me thou shalt perform my marriage at the time of the star Revati. (54)

The Rishi said: - The star Revati, existing in conjunction with the moon; exists not, O thou good one! There are other stars, O thou whose eye brows are excellent, fit (to preside over) thy marriage. (55)

The Maiden said: - "It seems to me, father, that without him, the time of my marriage shall be fruitless. How shall the marriage of one like myself be performed at a fruitless time." (56) The performer of penances, well known by the name of Ritavak, became angry with Revati, and by him thus angry was the star destroyed. (57) And by me also has it been promised to this one that this one, with intoxicating glance, shall be thy wife. If thou dost not desire marriage, a great difficulty has presented itself to me. (58)

The Maiden said: - What penances have been practised by that Muni Ritavak, such as have not been practised by thee, my father? Am I then the daughter of an inferior Brahmana? (59)

The Rishi said: - Thou art not, my girl, the daughter of an inferior Brahmana, nor even of the performers of penances; thou art my daughter, who is capable of creating other gods. (66)

The Maiden said: - If my father be one who has attained the virtues of penance, then why is not marriage performed in that star, having previously set it in the bright firmament. (61)

The Rishi said: - So be it then for thy good, O thou good one - Be pleased, for thy sake I shall again establish the star Revati on the orbit of the moon. (62)

Markandeya said: - Then O thou superior Brahmana, by the power of his penances the great Muni made the star Revati, as before, joined with the moon. (63) And having performed the marriage of the daughter, according to the law, and to the accompaniment of sacred formulas, being filled with delight he again thus spoke to the son-in-law. (64) "O governor of the earth, say, what shall I give thee as thy marriage present; I shall give thee even things that are most hard to get; the power of my penances is invincible". (65)

The King said: - I am born of the descendants of the Swayambhuva Manu, O Muni; I pray that I may have, by thy favour, a son who shall be the lord of the Manwantara. (66)

The Rishi said: - This thy desire shall come to pass. Thy son, O ruler of the world, shall be Manu and shall enjoy all the earth, and shall also be righteous.

Markandeya said: - Then taking her the king went to his own city; and from her, Revati, was born a son, the Manu Revati. (63) He was invested with all the virtues, and was unconquerable by men, and knew all the sciences, and was versed in the knowledge of the meaning of the Vedas and other scriptures. (69) Hear with undivided attention, O Brahman, O Muni, from me relating the gods, the lord of the gods, the earthly kings, &c. (70) O thou twice-born one, in that (Manwantara) the Sumedhas, the Bhupatis, the Vaikuntas, the Amitabhas, were the gods, each divided into fourteen classes. (71) The lord of these four classes, Bibhu, by name, was the enjoyer of a hundred sacrifice. (72) In the Manwantara of the Manu Revata Hiranyaroma, Vedasri, Urdhavahu, similarly others, -Vedavahu, Sudhama, and also Parjjanya, the great Muni Vashista, the possesser of the six good qualities of kindness, &c., and who had gone to the utmost limits of the Vedas and the Vedantas these were the seven primal Rishis. (74) Balabandhu, Mahabirya, Suyastavya, and likewise others, Satyaka, &c., were the sons of the Manu Revata. (75) The Manus, ending with Revata, who have been related to you by me, are all, with the exception of the Manu Swarochisha, the descendants of Swayambhuva Manu. (76)


Markandeya: - Thus have the five Manwantaras been described to you by me. Hear next of the sixth, belonging to Chakshusha. (1) In the previous birth this one was born of the eye of Paramesti, therefore, O thou twice-born one, even in this birth his name became Chakshusha. (2) The wife of the high-souled Rajarshi (the princely Rishi) Anamitra bore a son, learned, and pure, and possessed of the recollections of all former births, and powerful.

(3) At his birth his mother embraced him with love, lying on her lap, loudly expressing her joy, and again and again did she so. (4) He was born endowed with the knowledge of former births, therefore lying on the mother's lap he laughed; at this the mother becoming angry spoke these words. (5) "I am overtaken by fear. What is this my child? There is smile on thy face - thy intelligence is born prematurely. Dost thou see any happy augury?" (6)

The Son said: - Dost thou not see that this female cat before thee is willing to eat me; and the second one (wishing to eat me) is this Jataharini, who is out of thy sight. (7) Because moved by the love of thy son, thou, O revered one, art beholding me with affection, and by crying aloud art embracing me many times, from which arises rapture (in thee) and thy sight is filled with tears born of love, - therefore has this smile come to (my lips); hear also its reason. (8-9) Drawn by selfishness this female cat is longingly looking at me; and similarly the other one the Jataharini, who is out of sight. (10) Just as these two are devoted to me with tender hearts from selfishness similarly thou too also art moved by selfishness, so it seems to me. (11) But while the female cat and Jataharini are bent upon enjoying me (immediately) thou desirest such fruits of me as thou mayst enjoy gradually in time. (12) Thou dost not know me, - who this one is; nor hast thou been benefitted by me, our association is not of long, only of five or seven days. (13) Still thou lovest me, embracest me with tears, and dost address me with such words as father, son, the good one, &c.

The Mother said: - Not for any benefit, O beloved one, do I embrace thee with love. If this be not pleasant to thee, and I be deserted by thee, whatever selfish objects may be gained from thee, they are given up by me. (15)

Markandeya said: - Thus saying, she, leaving him, got out of the confinement house, with her external senses be numbed and unfit for work, but her inner spirit pure. (16) Then Jataharini took that (child); and she, having stolen their boy, placed him on the bed of king Vikranta, and took his son. (17) And taking him also to another house, and taking up the son of that house, gradually Jataharini ate up that third one. (18) This exceedingly cruel one, thus continually stealing (peoples' children) and exchanging one after another, always eats up the third one. (19) Then the lord of earth Vikranta performed all the sacramental ceremonies which are performed by the kings. (20) The father, that lord of men, Vikranta, moved by supreme delight, according to law, gave him the name Ananda. (21) To him, and the boy after his Upanayana sacrament had been performed, the Guru said, "at first go and make obeisance to thy mother". (22) Hearing that word of the Guru he said laughing: - "Which mother is to be adored by me, whether she who gave me birth or she who nursed me." (23)

The Guru said: - This, O thou possessor of the eight great qualities, is she who gave thee birth, she the daughter of Jarutha, and the chief queen of Vikranta, known by the name of Haimini. (24)

Ananda said: - She is the mother of Chaitra, resident of Vishalagrama and son of the Brahman Agravadha, who is born of her; we are born of another. (25)

The Guru said: - Whence are you, say Ananda? Who again is Chaitra spoken of by thee? Where art thou born, and why art thou here; tell me, I apprehend a great difficulty. (29)

(F. Eden Pargiter:  Ananda spoke: I was born in a ksatriya king's house of his wife Giri-bhadra. O brahmana. The hag that steals newborn children took me; she left me here, and taking Haimini's son also carried him further to the house of the leading brahmana Bodha, and devoured the brahmana Bodha's son. Haimini's son has been consecrated with the sanctifying rites of a brahmana there. I have been consecrated here by you as guru, illustrious Sir. I must obey your command; which mother shall I approach, O guru? The guru spoke: Extremely intricate, my child, is this great difficulty that has befallen. I understand it not at all, for my wits are wandering as it were through enchantment.)

Ananda said: - The universe being thus stationed where is the opportunity for stupefaction? O Brahmana saint, who is whose son and who is whose friend? (32) All such relations

originate with the birth of mankind and they are all snapped by death, O Brahmana. (33) The relation, with the friends that springs up with the birth, ceases with the dissolution of the body; such is the law of the universe. (34) Therefore do I say that there is no friend while living in the world. Who is else is an eternal friend? Why then is thy understanding bewildered? (35) Even in this birth I have got two fathers and two mothers. What wonder is there if this happens again in the next birth? (36) I shall (now) engage in devout penances. Do thou therefore bring him from Vishalagrama who is the son of the king. (37)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon the king, along with his wife and friends, was stricken with wonderment. Then withdrawing all attachment he ordered him to retire into woods. (38) Then bringing his son Chaitra and reverencing the Brahmana by whom he was brought up in the light of a son he trained him up for the kingdom. (39) Then Ananda, a mere boy, engaged in rigid austerities in the forest for exhausting his actions that stand in the way of salvation. (40) Whilst thus engaged in rigid austerities the deity Brahma said to him "O son, tell me why hast thou engaged in such rigid austerities?" (41)

Ananda said: - "O Reverend Sir, with a view to purify my own soul, and exhaust those actions that have fettered me I have engaged in this devout penance". (42)

Brahma said: - "One, engaged in actions, has no right (to practise devout penances) and is unworthy of salvation. How canst thou, possessed of energy, attain to salvation? (43) Thou must be born as the sixth Manu; do thou therefore go and become so. There is no need of asceticism unto thee; by doing this (i.e., becoming a Manu) thou shalt attain to salvation." (44)

Markandeya said: -Having been thus addressed by Brahma and acquiesed in it the magnanimous (Ananda), bent on becoming (a Manu), desisted from carrying on devout penances and repaired therefrom. (45) Having taken him away from his ascetic observances Brahma addressed him as Chakshusha Manu. (46) He espoused Vidarbha the daughter of the king Ugra and begat on her a number of sons of well-known prowess. (47) Hearken, O twice-born one, who during this Manwantara were the gods and the Rishis, who was the Indra and who were his sons. (48) In it the gods were called Aryas and they were divided into nine classes. O Vipra, they were all of illustrious deeds, used to feed upon Havya in a sacrifice, were of well-known prowess and energy and were difficult of being eyed for their effulgence. There was another class of deities called Prasuta who were divided into eight sects. (49-50) Another class of deities came into being called Vavyas who also were divided into eight sects and then came the fourth class of deities who were also divided into eightfold divisions. (51) O twice born one, in this Manwantara the fifth class of deities, who appeared, were called Lekhas and used to feed on ambrosia. (52) He, who having celebrated a hundred sacrifices became their lord, was called Manojava and was a partaker of sacrificial offerings. (53) Sumedha, Virajas, Havishman, Unnata, Madhu, Atinama and Sahishnu, these seven were the Rishis. (54) Uru, Puru, Shatadyumna and others were the highly powerful sons of Manu Chakshusha and they all became the lords of the earth (55). I have thus described to you, O you twice-born one, the sixth Manwantara, the birth and the character of the high-souled Chakshusha. (56) The one, who has now appeared, is called Manu Vaivaswata. Hear, I shall now describe the deities and others of this seventh Manwantara. (57)


Markandeya said: - O great one, the daughter of Vishwakarman was the wife of the sun, by name Sajna who begat on her a son, by name Manu, who, illustrious as he was, was equally a master of various branches of learning. He was the son of Vivaswat and was therefore called Vaivaswata. (1-2) As soon as she was espied by the sun Sajna used to close her eyes and therefore he, in anger, addressed to her cruel words: (3) "Since, O stupid one, you close yours eyes as soon as I cast my looks on you therefore will you give birth to Yama, the destroyer of creatures." (4) Thereupon the goddess, stricken with fear, assumed trembling looks, at which the sun again said to her. (5) "Since beholding me, you have assumed trembling looks you will give birth, as your daughter, to the fickle river." (6) Thus by the imprecation of her husband she gave birth to Yama and the great river celebrated under the name of Yamuna. (7) Henceforth she, with great difficulty, began to suffer the effulgence of

the sun. And unable to bear it she began to think. (8) "What shall I do? Where shall I go? Repairing where can I get respite and be not subject to the ire of my husband?" (9) Thus meditating in many ways the great daughter of the Patriarch thought well of the protection of her father. (10) Thereupon bent on going to her father's house the illustrious (goddess) converted her own body into the favourite shadow of the sun and said to her. "Do thou, like me, live in the abode of the sun and like wise shouldst thou behave thyself towards the sun and his offspring. (11-12) Even when accosted thou shouldst not tell him of my departure. On the other hand thou shouldst always tell him. "I am Sajna.". (13)

The illusory Sajna said: - "O goddess, I shall carry out thy mandate so long the sun does not pull me by the hair or imprecate a curse on me; I shall relate the story when he will pull me by the hair or curse me". (14) Having been thus addressed the goddess repaired to her father's abode and saw there Twastri who had all his sins washed away by ascetic observances. (15) She was received with great honour by Vishwakarman and that blameless lady too lived for some time in her father's house. (16) Thereupon having greeted his daughter of beautiful limbs who had not lived there for a long time with great love and honor (he said):

(17) - "When I behold thee, my girl, even many livelong years appear as the half of a moment. But virtue is disappearing. (18) It is not praiseworthy for females to live long in the house of her relations; and it is the desire of their kinsmen that the women may live in the house of their husbands. (12) Thou hast been wedded to the Sun the lord of the three worlds. It does not behove thee, O my girl, to live for ever in the house of thy husband. (20) Do thou therefore repair to the house of thy father. I have been pleased with thee and do adore thee. Come again, O auspicious girl, to see me. (21)

Markandeya said: - Having been thus addressed by her sire, O ascetic, she said "So be it"; and then having worshipped her father she repaired to Uttarakuru. (22) Thereupon reluctant to bear the effulgence of the Sun and afraid of his rays, she, having assumed the form of a mare, engaged in ascetic observances. (33) Thereupon regarding her as Sajna the Sun begat on his second wife two sons and a highly beautiful daughter. (24) The illusory Sajna did not manifest that excessive affection towards the sons and daughter of Sajna as she did towards her own offspring. (25) She daily looked after their own comforts. Manu forgave her for this but Yama could not do so. (26) Then to strike her he raised up his foot in anger - and then immediately stricken with mercy he did not let it fall on her person. (27) Thereupon, O twice-born one, the illusory Sajna, with her palms trembling and lips expanded in anger, imprecated a curse on Yama: (28) "Since, out of irreverence thou hast raised a foot against me who am thy father's wife thy that very foot shall drop off to-day". (29) Having thus heard of the curse thus imprecated by his mother and been stricken with fear Yama approached his sire and having saluted him said: (30) - "It is a great wonder, O father, never witnessed by any that a mother, relinquishing all affection, imprecates a curse on her son. (31) Me thinks, as does Manu hold, that she is not our mother, for even when a son grows unnatural a mother does not become so". (32) Hearing Yama's words the Divine Sun sent for the illusory Sajna and asked her where Sajna had gone. (33)

Whereto she replied: - "O Sun, I am the daughter of Twastri, Sajna, thy wife and the mother of all these children". (34) Although accosted by the Sun in many ways she did not communicate any thing else. Then the Sun in anger-addressed himself to imprecate a curse.

(35) Thereat she communicated everything truly to the Sun. Informed of all the Sun repaired to the abode of the divine Twastri. (36) Thereupon he worshipped the Sun with great reverence, adored of the three worlds who had come to his house. (37) Then when questioned about Sajna, Vishwakarma told him: - "Despatched by thee she came to my house". (38) Then having concentrated his mind the Sun saw her, carrying on ascetic observances in the form of a mare in the province of Uttarakuru. (39) The Sun then came to know of the object of her penances namely, "May my husband become of a mild form and the performer of auspicious deeds". (40) The Sun then, O twice-born one, said to Vishwakarma, the father of Sajna, "do thou to-day losen the fierceness of my rays. (41) Vishwakarma then reduced the effulgence of the Sun who travels over a year and the deities then began to hymn him. (42)


Markandeya said: - Thereupon having assembled together the celestials and the Rishis began to hymn the glories of the sun, worshipped of the three worlds in the following words.


The Celestials said: - Salutation unto thee who art in the form of Rik, Saman, Yayur, salutation unto thee, who art the refuge of all and dost light all. (2) Salutation unto thee who art the only stay of knowledge, identical with pure effulgence, who art pure, whose soul is purified and who hast not the tinge of the quality of ignorance. (3) Salutation unto thee who art the greatest and the most excellent of all, the great soul and whose manifestation is the whole universe and whose form is Atman. (4) Salutation unto thee, the primary cause of all, the stay of all who have their intellects illumined by knowledge, who art identical with the light and the soul that manifests itself. (5) Salutation unto thee who art Bhaskara and who dost make the day; salutation unto thee who art the instrument of the making of the night, eve and moon-light. (6) O lord, thou art all this (universe); by thy motion forward and backward thou art sustaining the whole universe, mobile and immobile. (7) Touched by thy rays all this becomes purified; touched by thy rays even the water becomes purified. (8) As long as this universe is not connected with thy rays so long the performance, of Homa, charities and other ceremonies, does not lead to the well-being (of the performers). (9) From thy one limb has emanated the Rik, the Saman from the other and Yayur from the third. (10) O lord of the universe, thou art identical with Rik, Yayur and Saman and therefore, O lord, thou art identical with three. (11) Thou are the subtle and gross form of Brahman; thou art with form and without it; thou dost exist both in thy gross and subtle forms. (12) Thou art identical with Nimesha, Kashtha and other (divisions of time) as well as with Kala the destroyer of all. Be thou pleased of thy own accord and make an end of thy own effulgence. (13)

Markandeya said: - Having been thus eulogised by the deities and the saints the undecaying bundle of effulgence (the Sun) renounced his own lustre. (14) The earth was engendered by that portion of his effulgence which was identical with Rik - the etherial region was created by what was identical with Yayur and heaven by what was identical with Saman. (15) The Divine Architect, made with those fifteen divisions of his effulgence that had been exhausted, the trident of Siva, the discus of Vishnu, the dreadful maces of Vasus, Sankara and the fire god, the conveyance of the god of riches and other shining weapons of Yakshas, Vidyadharas and other celestials. (16-18) Thenceforward the Divine Sun bears only the sixteenth portion of his effulgence, which was thus distributed into fifteen divisions by the celestial Architect Viswakarman. (19) Thereupon, having assumed the guise of a horse the Sun repaired to the province of Uttarakuru and espied Sajna in the form of a mare. (20) Seeing him thus approach and taking him in fear to be another person, she went in front of him. (21) Then united with each other, they smelt each other's nose; then on the seminal fluid being discharged there came out of the two nostrils Aswinis and Revanta seated on horseback with swords, daggers, armour, arrows and quiver. (22-23) Thereupon the Sun displayed his own matchless form. Beholding this form Sajna assumed her own and was delighted. (24) Then the Sun, the stealer of water, brought her own loving wife Sajna, who had assumed her own form, to his house. (25) Then was born his first son the Manu Vaivaswata; his second son Yama, on account of the imprecation of his mother, became of virtuous looks. (26) His father brought about an end of his imprecation saying, - "The worms, taking the flesh of his feet, shall fall down on the earth." (27) Because he was of virtuous looks and impartial both towards his friends and enemies his father appointed him in the office of the Regent of the Dead. (28) Yamuna became the tributary of Kalindi, the two Aswinis were appointed by their divine father as the physicians and Revanta became the king of Guhyakas. Hear now, from me, of the mandate issued by the illusory Sajna towards her sons. (29-30) The first of the first born sons of illusory Sajna was like Manu. This son of the Sun obtained the appellation of Savarniki. (31) He will become Manu in that Manwantara when Bali will attain to the dignity of Manu. Sani was appointed one of the planets by his father. (32) Kuru, the king of men, was begotten on her third daughter by name Tapati by Samvarana. (32) I shall now relate to thee the seventh Manwantara of that Manu Vaivaswata, the king of the period, the Rishis, Indra and his sons. (34)


Markandeya said: - Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Sadhyas, Vishwadevas, Maruts, Vrigus and Angiras were the gods of that period. (1) Adityas, Vayus and Rudras should be known as Kashyapa's sons - Sadhyas, Vasus and Vishwadevas were sons of Dharma. (2) The Bhrigus were the sons of Angiras; they should all now be known as the sons of Marichi, O twice-born one. (3) The king of all these gods was the high-souled Urjashwi, who was the partaker of sacrificial offerings. All these kings of the gods past, present, and future were endowed with equal marks - thousand-eyed and holders of thunder-bolt; they were all subduers of foes. (4-5) They were all performers of sacrifices, were like bulls, with horns and were performers of hundred sacrifices and were all capable of over-powering creatures. (6) They were all, by virtue and other pious rites, endowed with governing qualities and were ordainers of past, present and future. Hear, O twice-born one, of the three worlds. (7) The earth is called the region of Bhu, the etherial region Div and heaven Divya - these are called the three regions.

(8) Atri, Vashshtha, the great saint Gautama, Bharadwaja, Viswamitra Koushika, and Jamadgni, the son of the high-souled Richika, these were the seven Rishis of that Manwantara. (9-10) Ikshwaku, Nabhaga, Dhrista, Sharyati, Narishwanta, Dishta, - Karusha, Prishadra, and Vasuman, well-known in the world, these nine were the sons of Manu Vaivaswata. (11-12) O Brahman, I have thus related to you, Vaivaswata Manwantara; men, hearing of it, O great one, are released from all sins and attain to great piety. (13)


Kraustuki said: - You have described all Manus beginning with Swayambhuva as well as the gods, kings, and Rishis of those periods. (1) Do thou describe in detail the seven Manus and the various gods of those Manwantaras that will rise in the present Kalpa. (2)

Markandeya said: - I have spoken to you about Savarni the son of the illusory Sajna. He is equal to the previous Manus and will be the eighth. (3) Rama, Vyasa, Galava, Diptiman, Kripa, Rishyashringa, and Drouni will be the seven Rishis in that period. (4) Ara, Sutapa and Amitabha, were the gods - divided into sixty classes. (5) Tapa, Tapas, Shatru, Dyuti, Jyoti, Prabhakara, Prabhasa, Dayita, Dharma, Teja, Rashmi, Vakratu and others were the twenty deities called Sutapa. Prabhu, Vibhu, Vibhasa and others were the twenty of the class of deities called Amitabha. Hear, I shall describe the third class; Dama, Danta, Rita, Soma, Vinta and others were the twenty of the class of gods called Mukhya, they were all the lords of Manwantaras; they were the descendants of the Patriarch, Maricha the son of Kashyapa; they will be gods in the Manwantara of Manu Savarni. (6-9) O Muni, Virochana's son Bali is their future Indra. He is still now, by virtue of a contract, living in the nether region. (10) Virajacharvavira, Nirmoha, Satyavak, Kriti, Vishnu and others will be the sons of Manu Savarni. (11)


MARKANDEYA said: - "The Savurni (son of the sun) was said to have been the eighth Manu. Hear! I will copiously relate his birth. Manus, possessors of great shares, were the founders of Manwantaras, by the favour of Mahamaya, among them was Savurni. In the Manwantara of Swaro-chisha in former times Suradha, who was born of the race of Chytra, became a monarch of the whole earth. He ruled this subjects paternally; the kings who were hunters of wild boars then became hostile to him. A valiant and mighty king, among the hunters of wild boars, conquered him in battle, and reduced his power. Thence the holder of extensive portions returned to his city, and ruled over only his own tract of country; that king then became encompassed by the greatest enemies. The counsellors and evil disposed possessed the wealth of the humble king, who lost all the treasures in his city. He lost his royalty. Under the pretext of hunting, he retired to a dreary forest alone, mounted on his horse. He saw the hermitage of an excellent Dwija, thronged around with wild beasts and adorned by the presence of his disciples and sages. He lived there some time, revered by the Muni, and wandered about here and there. He ruminated there on the love that agitated his mind thus; what my predecessors ruled, I afterwards lost. I wonder whether my subjects

are governed with equity or not, I know not the fate of my counsellors, and my trained elephant Surahusti. They are now in the possession of my enemies; what pleasure can they now enjoy, who were formerly pampered with food and riches. Now they are certainly maltreated by the foreign kings; lavished on vain purposes is the treasure that was assumed. The king was sorrowful that his treasury was expended. On these and other things he was perpetually meditating. He saw a Vysa near the cell of a Vipra, "O who art thou" said he "what is the cause of thy coming here?" Why dost thou appear pensive and melancholy, O wealthy man? Why are your eyes red with sorrow? Markandeya said, "hearing the humble speech of the king, the Vysa obsequiously replied to him." My name is Samadhi, a Vysa. I am born of a wealthy tribe, I am banished through my sons and wife's covetousness, and wickedness. My sons are possessed of my fortune, and I have become destitute of wealth, a consort, and children; in sorrow I took refuge in the forest, leaving behind me my friends and relations. I live here unacquainted with the happiness or misery of my sons, the welfare of my people, or wife. Whether their house is in safety or danger, at present? How my sons are, whether they are engaged in moral or evil deeds? The Rajah asked, "why do you love those sons and that wife, through whose avarice you are banished?" The Vysa replied, "knowing my sentiments, why do you interrogate me, I cannot harden my heart, what can I do." Covetousness has extinguished their filial affection, yet I feel for my people. O mighty wise man, I am simple, for my heart is attached to my treacherous kinsmen though I know them. How can I hate them, or bear malice in my heart. Markandeya said, "the Vysa by name Samadhi, and the noble king went to the Muni." They were duly respected by him as prescribed in the ordinances: they both conversed on history. The Rajah said, "O divine personage! I am desirous to ask one thing from thee, explain it to me, my mind has lost its function, I am troubled with anxiety? O excellent Muni! what is this? though conscious of transitoriness, yet like an ignorant person I love my kingdom, and all my retinue.1 He was banished by his son, wife, attendants, and his relations, yet he feels pity for them. In this manner we both excessively grieve, love draws us unto reprehensible actions.2 What is this, O magnificient sage, though we are ingenious, yet our affection produces cecity in action. The Rishi said, "O great sharer, wisdom exists in all living creatures that are desirous of life, love predominates in each individually. Some animals are blind in the day, others at night, and others again that appear equally blind both day and night. It is true, that kings appear prudent, but are not really so; all the beasts, birds, animals have knowledge. What knowledge mankind is possessed of, the others are equally endowed with. See the birds being wise, though oppressed with hunger themselves, yet lovingly pick up the crumbs with their beaks and feed their young ones? O chief of kings! do you not see men lovingly support their offspring for the benefit of others.3 By attraction they fall in the vortex of love. By the power of Mahamaya, the world was originally created. Mahamaya seized the lord of the world when at his slumber yoga; the great illusion enveloped Hari, she shackles the world.4 The divine goddess possesses irresistibly the heart of even the wisest, and forcibly leads into great deception. By her the universe consisting of animates and inanimates was created, her blessings procure emancipation.5 The knowledge of her is the means of supreme salvation; she is eternal and links mortality; she is the supreme goddess over all goddesses. The Rajah said, "O divine personage! who is that goddess? O twice-born! whom you mentioned just now, how was she born? what miracles did she do?" What stupendous action did she, whose form is admirable, perform? I am desirous of hearing about those things, O excellent among those who know the almighty, tell me? The Rishi said, "the form of the world is eternal, all things were created by her, I was frequently told her birth." She is eternal and only took form

1 Though conscious, &c., that is, though I have sufficient knowledge to know the instability of human transactions, yet like an ignorant person I am subservient to the emotions of my soul. 2 Reprehensible action; viz., mundane affections and the neglect of abstracted religious devotion. 3 Of others viz., posterity. 4 Shackles the world, being the great attractive power. 5 Procures emancipation from secular concerns.

for the benefit of the gods.1 When the world was deluged, Vishnu the Divine Superior Lord was reclining on the serpent bed at the end of Kalpa.

Then two horrible Asuras: named Madhu and Kitabha, was born from the wax of Vishnu's ear and endeavoured to slay Brahma. Prajapati residing in the lotus naval of Vishnu, saw the two wrathful Asuras and the sleeping Janarddana, who was (in Yoganidra), he thus prayed with strict faith to her, who made Hari's eye to be her abode. O goddess of the universe; mother of the earth! creator of matter and destroyer of it. Goddess of the slumber of Vishnu, who has extreme brilliancy, is surpassing and superior. Brahma continued, "thou art Swaha, thou art Swad'ha, thou art Vash-ut-kara, thou art Sudha, thou art Akchara, thou art eternal, and of three powers; Matra. Ardha-matra, constant, perpetual, thou art she who is moreover inexpressible, thou art Savitri, thou art the light, and a superior matron. Thou art the sustainer of all things, thou hast created all things, thou governest all things,2 thou existest to the end constantly. Thou art the principle of creation, thou art plastic, thou art the preserver, thou art the destroyer in the end, thou pervadest through the universe. Thou art the supreme knowledge, thou art the great illusion, the supreme intellect, the supreme memory, the great love, the ample light, the mighty goddess. Who contemplates all matter by three kind of powers, Kalaratri, Maharatri, and Moharatri, dreadful. Thou art prosperity, thou art the goddess, thou art Hari, thou art the wisdom that creates understanding, thou art modesty, strength, and gratification; thou art mildness and forgiveness. Thou art Khudgini, Sulini, the frightful Gadini, Chakrini, Sankhini, Chapini Bana, Brusundi, Parigha. Thou art placid, the greatest among the meek; beautiful, excellent, supreme among the excellent; thou art the great goddess. Thou existest in all that is little, and all that is great; in gay and sad things, and thou powerful by the acquirement of their strength, who is left to praise thee? Thou makest the world, thou destroyest the world, who can praise thee? Thou possessest the body of Vishnu, and also Maha-Esana, both of whom were made by thee, and who is able to praise thee? He plauds the goddesses' eminent actions, that she may link the wicked giants Madhu and Kitabha. And that she might awake the supreme lord, who was to slay both the great wicked demons. The Rishi said, the creator thus praised, that the enraged goddess might awake Vishnu to kill Madhu and Kitabha. She liberated Vishnu's eyes, nose, arms, bosom, and breast, and appeared to Brahma, whose birth is pure. Janarddana was delivered by her; the lord of the earth arose from his serpent bed in the ocean and beheld them. Madhu and Kitabha, ill disposed heroes; warlike, with red vision, endeavoured to extirpate Brahma. Rising afterwards, they both wrestled with the divine Hari for five thousand years. They were intoxicated by the great deception; the elate with pride desired Keshava to mention his wish. Bhagavan replied, "You shall both die by me! what other desire have I, know this is my only wish." The Rishi said, that they looked at the universe overflowed with water and deemed themselves deceived, they looked at the divine lotus-eyed, and spoke thus - "We are satisfied with the combat and praise thee; O vanquish and conquer us in a spot not moistened by water! The Rishi said to the holder of the Sanka and Chakra, the divine said, I will do so. He then cut off their heads with the Chakra on his thigh. Brahma himself applauded the deed. I will tell thee copiously of the miracles of the goddess, hear them. Thus far extends the first chapter, mentioning the destruction of Madhu and Kitabha.


In former times war was waged between the deities and demons for the full space of one hundred years; also between Mahisha-sura, the greatest of demons, and Poorunder (Purandara, the greatest of deities). The Asura of ample heroism repulsed the army of the Devas; Mahishasura vanquished all the angels and became as Indra. After this, the conquered deities went with Prajapati whose abode was the lotus to Garuda-dhwaja (or the eagle bannered). The Tridasas laid before him the distress of the gods with an account of Mahish-asura's actions. That he had usurped the authorities of Surya, Indra Anila, Indu, Yama, and Varuna; and others himself. They said, the gods are oppressed by the ill

1 Benefit of the Gods, that is, to destroy demons. 2 Three powers. - Creation, preservation, and destruction.

disposed Mahisha; the whole multitude of Devas have left heaven and wander on the earth like mortals. Those are the deeds of the enemies of the immortals, we humbly bow to thy asylum to meditate on their death. Madhusudana hearkened to the words of the deities; Sambhu was wroth contracting his brows with furious ire. Afterwards, Chakrini's face was transported with rage, abundance of light issued from Bramha and Sankara. An immense mass of light proceeded from the bodies of Sakra and all the other Devas, and conglomerated. This effulgent lustre appeared as a flaming mountain: the Suras having seen the flame receded to the extremities of regions. The peerless light issued from the bodies of all the Devas and the phenomenon was transfigured as a woman extending through the three worlds. The energy of Siva created her face; the brightness of Yama made her hair; her arms were formed by the light of Vishnu. Her two breasts were made by the moon; the space between them by Indra; her thighs and the calves of her legs by Varuna; her loins by the light of Bhuvi. Her feet by the energy of Brahma; her toes by the rays of the sun; her fingers by Vasus her nose by Cubara. Her teeth were created by the brightness of Prajapati; her three eyes by the energy of Pavaka. Her forehead by the light of Sundhia; her ears by Anila; the brightness of other deities formed her body. From the glory of the light of all the Devas, Siva sprang; the Amaras perceived the destroyer of Mahisha and exulted. The holder of the Pinaka took out his Sula and conferred it on her; Vishnu gave her a Chakra drawn from his own Chakra. Varuna gave her the sank; Hutasana the Sacti; Maruta spread a bow with arrows, and quiver complete. Indra took the Vajra from his Culisa, the one thousand eyed god took the bell from the elephant Iravata, and gave it to her. Varuna gave her a Cala¬dunda; and Yama the Pasa; Prajapati, lord of the subjects, bestowed an Akchamala and Comundala on her. The maker of day filled his rays in the roots of her hair; Cala granted a transparent sword and shield. A necklace pure as milk, immaculate Panoply, a Chudamani, and divine Cundala and Cataca. A crescent; a beautiful Keyura over her arms; shoulder ornaments and beautiful neck jewels, Rings of precious stones, on all her fingers. Viswa-Karma afforded her the limpid Parasu. Implements of different forms: likewise an invulnerable coat of arms; a never fading garland of lotus for her head and neck. Jaladhi conferred on her a prosperous Chaplet of lotus; Himavunt gave her lion vehicle and various gems. Dhanadhipa gave her a golden vase with imperishable wine to drink; Sesha gave her a necklace of serpent's ornaments and magnificient gems. Prudhwi granted a neckless of snakes, and the other Suras gave her jewels and arms. She shouted frequently with a terrible voice, the sound of which filled the sky. The eternal vault echoed with the terrific sound of "O Mayah," all the world was alarmed, the ocean trembled. The earth quaked, all the mountains were moved, the Devas joyously exclaimed, "victory be to the rider of the lion." Munies were delighted and faithfully made obeisance to her; she beheld the whole of the three Lokas grieved by the enemies of the Amaras. All the nearest armies were amply provided with implements, Mahisha-asura furiously said, "O what is this?" The sound of his voice reached the surrounding multitude of Asuras; he saw the goddess pervade the three Lokas. She indented the earth, occupied by her foot, her crown struck the sky: the sound of her bow-string terrified the whole subterraneous world. She grasped all the space of the regions by her one thousand arms; fierce war was waged between the goddess and the enemies of the Suras. They shot many powerful arrows; her arms extended towards all the cardinal points; the leader of the army of Mahisha-sura was a great Asura, by name Chickchura. He fought at the head of an Ayuta of great cheeked Asuras. The mighty Asura Asiloma, advanced with 50,000 Neyutas. Bhaskala conducted one hundred and sixty thousand Ayutas to the battle, accompanied by one hundred elephants, and many steeds. Bidala led one Koti of ruths in that war, and fifty thousand Ayutas. The other leaders were attended by one Ayuta of elephants, ruths and horses. The great Asuras encountered the goddess with Koti-Koti thousands chariots, and elephants. And with the same number horses, Mahisha-asura wielded the Tomara, Bindivala, sacti and Musala. He fought the goddess with his Khudga, Parasa, and Puttisa; some of the Asuras threw the sacti, and some the Pasa. Devi began to destroy them with her sword Chundica afterwards threw arrows and astras. She sportively cut them in pieces by the shower of her powerful shafts and arrows, Devi, the imperishable was greeted by the excellent Suras and sages. The goddess shot the powerful shafts and arrows, and severed the bodies of the Asuras; the lion

of the goddess being enraged, swiftly shook his mane and marched against the hostile army, like fire against a forest. During her achievements in war, the goddess sighed thereby instantly were produced hundreds and thousands of Ganas (or Amazons). Who fought with the demons, with Parasa, Bindivala, and Puttisa; the powerful voice of Devi, destroyed the hosts of Asuras. The Amazons sounded the Pataha, likewise the conches, kettle-drums, and other instruments in the festival of war. Afterwards Devi, by the trident, by the mace, by the sactivrusti, by the sword, and so forth, killed immense number of Asuras, and made others to fall by the ringing of the bell. She tied the Asuras with the Pasa on the earth; and some were cut down into pieces by the keen cut sword. She afterwards crushed the troops with her mace on the earth: some vommited blood, having been struck by the Musala. She cast some on the earth, breaking their bosom with the trident, she destroyed some by the keen shaft, in the field of battle. The commander of forces, the oppressors of Tridasas, forfeited their lives: some had their arms, others their throats cut. The heads of some of the vigorous Asuras were cut off, and the calves of the legs of others were severed and thrown down to the earth. Devi had maimed each of the Asuras of an arm, an eye, and a foot; and though their heads were severed from their bodies, the trunks rose again. The trunks, holding the excellent arms, fought with Devi; the Apsaras danced during the battle, accompanied by great shouts. The trunks of the Asuras, whose heads were cut off, still held the sacti, Khudga, Vrusti, and spoke aloud: stand! stand. The fallen chariots, elephants, and steeds of the Asuras were innumerable; where the great battle was fought, instantly rivers of blood were streaming. The centre of the army of Asuras, the chariots and horses of Asuras were annahilated by Ambika. In a moment the forces of the Asuras were destroyed in abundance by fire, like grass and wood. The Kesari (or lion) made an excessive roar, it produced a concussion among the bodies of the foes of the Suras. By the Amazons of the Devi, victory over the Asuras was achieved, the gods were gratified and poured down Amaranthine flowers from heaven.


The Rishi said: - The mighty Asura, by name Chickchura, general of the army, on beholding the destruction of his force proceeded to fight against Ambika. That goddess poured a shower of arrows on the Asur, as the clouds rain on the peak of Meru mountain. The goddess sportively cut his mighty weapon, and killed the steeds, and driver by her arrows. She instantly broke his bow and his highest flag-staff: she wounded him in the body. Having lost his bow, he was deprived of his chariot, his horses, and drives were killed: the Asura, holding a shield and sword, ran against Devi. He struck the head of her lion fiercely with the keen blade of his sword: he struck the right arm of the goddess. O prince, when the sword reached her arm, it broke: the, Asura then took a Sula, his eyes being red with wrath. And discharged it at Bhadra-Kali, flaming with a brightness equal to the orbit of the sun in heaven. The goddess receiving the Sula, discharged by the demon, threw a trident which cut the mighty Asura's weapon into a hundred pieces and killed him. When the great valiant demon was dead, Chamara, the general of Mahisha's army, oppressor of Tridasas, mounted on an elephant. Firmly, discharged a Sacti on the Devi, but by her shout she made it to fall on the earth innoxious. With anger he beheld the Sacti broken and fallen, and discharged a Sula, she then cut it with her arrows. She leapt from the lion to the globular forehead of the elephant, and direly wrestled with the foes of Tridasas. During the combat, they both dismounted and began furiously to beat one another. Afterwards the enemy of the beasts1, swiftly attacked and separated the head of Chamara, from his body, by the strokes of his paws. Devi killed Vudagra, by hurling stones, trees, &c. upon him, she made Carala to fall by her teeth and feet. Devi being enraged by the blows of her mace, ground him into powder; Bhascala by Pindivala; Tomara and likewise Andhaca by her arrows. The supreme goddess killed Vugramsa, Vugra-Virya likewise Maha-Hanu and Trinatra, by her trident. She made the head of Bidala to fall by her sword; destroyed Durdhara and Durmukha by her arrows. While she was thus destroying his army, Mahishasura impeded those Ganas in the form of Mahisha. Some by biting with his mouth, and others by kicking with his hoofs, some by the

1 Enemy of the beasts - lion.

lashes of his tail and by the goring of his horns. Some of them by the loudness of his bellow, by his burning breath he made them to fall to the ground. The Asura having caused Pramadas to fall, angrily ran to kill the lion of the goddess. The great hero enraged, tore up the earth with his hoofs and cast down the highest hills. He speedily turned about, cracked the earth, lashed the ocean with his tail, and made it to overflow everywhere. The clouds were dispersed by his long horns, the mountains and sky were blown into hundred pieces by his breath and sighs. The great Asura wrathfully bellowed! Chandika looked, highly enraged and endeavoured to lay hold on him. She threw out a Pasa to bind him, he was tied, and relinquished his buffaloe's form in this great combat. He instantly turned into a lion, within the time that Ambika cut of this head; he then converted himself into a man, held a sword and disappeared. Afterwards the goddess pierced him with her arrows, he with his sword and shield turned into a mighty elephant. The elephant pulled the lion with his trunk, and made a terrific noise, the goddess cut his proboscis with her sword. Afterwards the great Asura assumed the form of a buffaloe, and terrified the three Lokas of animates and inanimates. The passionate Chandika, matron of the world, frequently drank excellent liquor, bearing wrathful redness in her eyes. The Asura being highly endowed with bravery and lust, furiously hurled mountains with his horns on Chundika. She pulverized them with her strong arrows, and with increased intoxication and angry looking face. Devi cried, Oh! vain noise! noise! wait a moment until I perfectly drink this liquor; when you are slain by me here, all the gods will exclaim. The Rishi said, she laid hold on the great Asura, (who advanced towards her conveyance), with her feet, she struck him with her Sula. When he was caught hold on by her feet, his half real form from his face became manifest; the goddess was surrounded by a blaze of glory. The great Asura being half issued and fighting with her, the goddess cut off his head with her ample sword. Afterwards every one exclaimed, that the army of the Daitya was annihilated; then a multitude of deities were highly delighted. The band of deities, with the magnificient sages applauded the goddess, the kings of Gandharvas sung, Apsaras danced. Thus far is related in the third Chapter, containing the destruction of Mahishasura.


The eloquent Indra, and the crowd of Suras, after the death of the demons bowing their heads were delighted, and the hair of their beautiful bodies became erect. O Goddess! by thy power this world was created with spirits and gods of different and numerous forms. O Ambika! thou art revered by all the deities; the magnificent sages faithfully prostrate themselves to thee: mayest thou give us prosperity. Thy miracles are unparalleled, Bhagavan, Ananta, Brahma, and Hara are unable to express it. Mayest thou, O Chandika! endeavour to preserve the world, and dispel the fears of the giants. Thou residest in the mansion of the virtuous as a goddess of riches, and as an unfortunate deity in the abode of the vicious, as sense in the heart of the wise, as faith in mankind, and modesty in the superior castes: to thee, O Goddess! I make obeisance and implore thee to rule the universe. How can I describe thy form which is inconceivable? thou art great, heroic, ample: destroyer of the giants. Thy deeds in war are admirable, O Goddess! and superior to the hosts of giants and gods. Thou art the instigating cause of the universal earth, of three powers; incomprehensible to sinners, and even to Hari-Hara, and so forth; thou art attended by all, and art the proprietress of this world: thou art undefinable, inscrutable, and the excellent principle of matter. Thou art Swaha in all the sacrifices. By the devout expression of thy name all the deities are gratified: people pronounce thee by the name of Swadha for the expiatory oblation for deceased ancestors. Thy stability confers inconceivable salvation, which is obtained by those votaries, who subdue their organs, thou art a goddess, thou art the supreme knowledge to edify the searcher after beatitude, sages, and those that are free from different offences. Thou art the word, source of the purest Rig, Yaju, and Saman, of eloquent florid phrases. O divine Goddess! thou art of three powers: for the augmentation of the world; thou art the destroyer of the universe and remover of severe evils. O Goddess! thou art intelligence; essence of the substance of various sciences; impenetrable; a vessel on the difficult sea of secularity; unassociated; chiefly resident in the heart of the enemy of

Khytabha.1 Gouri, thou art worn by the crescent crowned god. With a soft smile, thou art the purest representative of the perfect orbit of the moon; thou hast a beautiful golden hued body. It is an entire wonder that Mahishasura, with self-created anger could look on the enraged, and brow-contracted countenance of the goddess glowing as Sasadhara,2 and not instantly quit his soul; who can live in the sight of the enraged Untaka? O Goddess! we now entreat thy countenance for the ample increase of generations; we implore thee to destroy in thy wrath the extensive posterity of the force of Mahishasura, and to bestow the desired wealth, fame, inexhaustible virtues, offsprings, attendants, consorts, and promotion on the people of the countries thou favourest, mayest thou countenance them. O Goddess! the virtuous by faithfully performing every day the different divine services, and consecration depart to heaven, and thereby reap the fruit of their labour in the three worlds. O Durga! all creatures lose their fear by praying to thee; thou dost grant abundance of prosperities; thou dost release from pain and grievous distress; who is more watchful to oblige in every respect; and who more compassionate than thee. All the universe was made happy by the death of the giants, and though they have committed transgressions a long time which are deserving hell, yet by slaying them in battle you have sent them to heaven. Why did not all the adversaries of the deities turn to abundant ashes, when they saw the dire implements cast forth by thy hand? thou deeming it meet, that they should approach to heaven, hast purified them by thy weapons. The Asuras looking at thy fine large face, resembling the crescent of the moon, became insensible to the vivid flashes of the trident. O Goddess! thy fortitude will cause to cease the practice of all profligate acts, thy unequalled form is inconceivable, thy heroism will absorb other's valour, and even thy foes acknowledge thy merits. Thy prowess is without equal, thy form will create fear in the enemy: in peace thou art complacent, and in war thou art implacable. O goddess! thou givest benedictions in the three worlds. Thou hast killed the foes at the head of the battle, and saved the whole of the three worlds; multitude of enemies proceeded to heaven. We are exempt from fear, and prostrate ourselves to thee, who art a foe to the intoxicated enemies of Suras. O Ambika! preserve us by thy trident and sword; preserve us by the ringing of thy bell, and by the sound of thy bow-string. O Chandika! guard the East and the West, and the South. Oh Brahmani! defend the North with thy trident. Mayest thou support the saints and good spirits that wander in three lokas; mayest thou retain a number of tremendous forms on the earth, that wield the sword, trident, club, and other instruments in their hand, to defend us at all times and places. The Rishi said, the Suras thus praised and joyfully worshipped her with the divine flowers of the garden of Nandana, rubbing sandal on the universal Dhatri. All the Tridasas faithfully offered her sweet smelling incense, the mild faced goddess said to the humble Suras. Devi said, O Tridasas! I am pleased with your worship I will affectionately give you whatever you desire. The Devas replied, O divine goddess! we have every thing that we require. Thou hast slain our adversary Mahishasura, all our desires have been obtained through thy favour, we have only one thing more to request of thee. Secure from harm whatever mortal recollects to call upon thee, repeatedly, in the time of danger. O beautiful Face! deign to give them augmentation of riches, spouses, and properties. Mayest thou eternally promote us. The Rishi said, the supreme goddess, supporter of the world granted the request, and blessed Bhadra-Kali; and then, O King! she vanished away. He related to the king the history of the conformation of the goddess from the emanation of the deities who were anxious for the weal of these three worlds. Again she was born from the body of Gouri, in order to destroy the evil Daitayas, together with Sumbha, and Nisumbha, to preserve the universe and to gratify the deities. Listen I will perfectly, detail it to you. Thus far is related in the fourth Chapter containing the praise of Sakra or Indra, and so forth.


The Rishi said, formerly the Asuras, Sumbha, and Nisumbha, by the strength of inebriation possessed the whole portion of the sacrifices of the three worlds. They likewise usurped the powers of Indra, Surya, Kubera, Yama, Varuna, Sakra, likewise Pavana, Vunhi; the deities

1 Vishnu 2 Sasadhara - literally, hare-holder, the moon.

were beaten by them and deprived of their realms and fled. He assumed the authority of Tridasas, expelled them all; the mighty Suras being deserted recollected the goddess. "Thou hast bestowed this favour on all of us, that if we shall remember thee in the hour of danger, that thou shalt remove the peril from us." Thus they meditated on the goddess in their hearts and repaired to Himavant, (king of mountains) there they greeted the goddess of the illusion of Vishnu. The Devas said, we salute the great goddess, maker of joy, and continually prostrate ourselves and pay homage to the auspicious matter; we humbly bow to the pious. Salutation be for ever to Radri, reverence be to the Dhatri, eternal prostration to the light, to the form of the moon and beatitude; twice obeisance to the prosperous, to the prolonger, maturer, and Kurme. Twice salutation to the Niruta supporter of the earth, and the goddess of riches, Sarvani. Twice salutation to Durga, remover of difficult limits; constant salutations to the renowned one, likewise to the sable and dusky. Twice salutation to the ample, the mild and the austere; prostration to the establisher of the world and to the goddess. Five times salutation to the goddess who is called an illusion of Vishnu in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the mind in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the intellect in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is repose in all creatures. Five times prostration to the goddess, who is the appetite in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the shadow in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is a power in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is gratification in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is mercy in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is a caste in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is modesty in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is pity in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the faith in all creatures. Five time salutation to the goddess, who is splendour in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the form of prosperity in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the intellect in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the memory in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who lives as favour in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess who lives as joy in all creatures. Five times salutation to the, goddess who exists as a mother in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who lives as a form of delusion in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who exists as wisdom in all creatures. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is above the organs and eternally pervades through all creatures; We salute the goddess who resides in all the world as a form of effulgence. Suras, Indra, Dinesa assembled together and prayed to her according to their former request. O goddess! causer of happiness; bestow prosperous blessings on us; dispel the danger that encompasseth us. We and the Suras salute thee. Destroy the proud Daityas whoever contemplates thee with obeisance, their misfortunes shall be instantly removed. The Rishi said, when the deities applauded Parvati, O prince! she went to perform ablution in the water of Janhavi. She asked them, "Whom did you greet there." The resplendent Siva emanated from her body, and spoke thus to her. "They recited my praises, because they were expelled by the giant Sumbha, all the deities retreated before Nisumbha in the war." From the body of Parvati, Amvika issued, and was denominated Kouciki throughout the universe. When she had emanated from Parvati, (who turned black), she was called Kouciki and resorted about Himachala. Her transcendent form beautiful, and creating admiration was seen by Chanda and Munda, who were attendants of Sumbha and Nisumbha. They mentioned to Sumbha, O great sovereign! there is a beautiful female, exalted on the Himachala mountain, she charms the heart of all beholders. There is no shape resembling her yet seen by any body. Find out who she is and pass that angelic female. That charming body is a gem among the damsels, glowding in all directions; O Indra of the giants! it remains for thee to behold her. O Lord! you have already stored in your mansion, all the precious gems of these three worlds; steeds and elephants. The elephant Airavata, you have brought from Purandara, or Indra, the tree Parijata, likewise the steed Ucchaisrava. The car with divine swans remains in your mansion, which was made of precious stones to the astonishment of Veda, you have brought the Nidhi and Maha-Padma from the god of riches. The ocean has conferred on you the lotus and a garland of unfading lotus. The gold shedding umbrella of Varuna is in your house, and so is the excellent vehicle of Prajapati, who passed it formerly. You took the Sakti, by name

Utcranta, the cord of the king of waters, was occupied by your brother. Vanhi has bestowed on Nisumbha, all sorts of gems found in the sea at the time of his performing his holy rites. O sovereign of the demons! you have acquired all the precious articles; why do you not take this auspicious female gem. The Rishi said, Sumbha was constantly listening to the speech of Chanda and Munda; the mighty giant sent a messenger Sugriva, to the goddess. Said he, "go and tell her that I want her; convey my errand swiftly, effect the mandate you are sent upon, pleasing her in any manner." He proceeded to the mountain, where the auspicious was stationed, and delivered the message to the goddess, endeavouring to move her with mellifluous accents. The Duta said, O Goddess! Sumbha is the lord of the Daityas, he is a mighty sovereign of the three worlds, I am his messenger sent by him hither. He has perpetual and unbounded authority over all the deities, he has conquered all the foes of Daityas, hear what he says. I possess all the deities of the three worlds, and receive solely all the sacrificial oblations. I have gained the excellent gems of the three worlds; the precious elephant of Indra, he humbly delivered to me. I am lord also of the horse, named Ucchaisrava, which was producted from the milky ocean, when the mighty Suras churned it. All the precious things found among the deities, Gandharvas and Nagas are mine. The world esteems thee, O Goddess! as a female gem come to us and we will wear thee. O thou of the darting glance! choose either me or my valorous younger brother Nisumbha, who are the possessors of the gems. You shall gain abundant and unmeasured wealth by taking me; consider and be wise, and forthwith possess me. "The Rishi said," the goddess with a disdainful smile, replied to him. "Devi said," what you have declared is true, there is no falsehood in your speech. Sumbha is lord of the three worlds, and so is Nisumbha. But how can I repeal my determined vow, hear what I formerly swore to without consideration. That whoever can vanquish me in combat, whoever can oppress my pride, whoever is equal to me in vigour in this world: he shall be my husband. Whether Sumbha, or the mighty demon Nisumbha, call them here to conquer me, I will seize their hands without delay. The messenger said, how do you arrogantly say this in my presence, is there any individual in the three worlds able to cope with Sumbha and Nisumbha. All the deities united were unable to withstand the giants in the war, then how canst thou, a single woman, resist them. Indra and all the other deities could not cope with him; how could it be possible for Sumbha to enter into the presence of a woman? You will be obliged at last to go, disgracefully dragged by the hair, to Sumbha and Nisumbha. Devi said, "is such the vigour of Sumbha, and is such the great valor of Nisumbha! I have formerly resolved and vowed without deliberation, what can I do now? Go directly and reveal to your master all that I spoke, and appeal to the Indra of demons; and let them do what is expedient. Thus far is related in the fifth Chapter, containing the conversation of the goddess and messenger.


The Rishi said, hear the word of goddess! the messenger transported with rage went to the king of Daityas, and addressed him thus - O sovereign of Asuras, hearken to the speech of your messenger, he then related the whole circumstances to Nisumbha, who furiously told Dhumralochana, (who is a superior of the giants). O Dhumralochana1, surround with your force and bring that wretch to me, forcibly drag her into my presence by her hair. If there is one remaining to protect her, bring him also whether he be immortal, Yaksha, or Gandharva. The Rishi said, the giant Dhumralochana, as directed, marched accompanied by sixty thousand Asuras. To the goddess, resident on Tuhinachala2, he beheld her and spoke loudly, "come to Sumbha and Nisumbha. If you go not cheerfully, I shall convey you by force to my King, dragging you by your hair." Devi said, "the Lord of the Daityas has sent a valiant demon with an army, if you carry me away what can I do?" The Rishi said, the giant Dhumralochana expeditiously proceeded to Ambika, who reduced him to calx by her breath Humkara. She became mightily enraged, and raised the keenest arrows and Sakti and Parasu. She furiously rose and made a frightful shout, and destroyed the force of Asuras by her lion. Grasping some of the demons she dashed them against each other and killed the

1 Dhumralochana - liberally smoky-eyed. 2 Tuhinachala - snowy mountain.

great Asuras, she demolished some by the blows of her hand. The lion tore some with his claws, and some by the strokes of his paws, separating their heads. Having their hands and heads broken by the beatings of the lion, they vomited hot blood. In a moment all that army was destroyed by the magnanimous and enraged lion of the goddess. The Asura heard of the death of Dhumralochana by the goddess, and that the whole of his army was defeated by the lion of the goddess. Sumbha, king of the Daityas, with agitated lips thus commanded the great Asuras Chanda and Munda. 'O Chanda and Munda proceed attended by a large body of forces, go and swiftly bring her here. Either lay hold on her hair, or hand, if you suspect the issue of the battle, with the various arms and the giants. Kill the wicked lion quickly, seize Amvika, bind and bring her to me.' Thus far is related in the sixth Chapter, mentioning the death of Dhumralochana, general of Sumbha and Nisumbha.


Sumbha having directed those giants. Chanda and Munda attended by four sorts of armies and arms, they marched the foremost to the fight. The goddess being on the lion over the peak of the stupendous golden mountain, saw them with a smile. The demons beheld her and highly exerted themselves to accomplish their designs, and the holder of the sword, and bow drew near to her. Amvika then became terribly angry at her enemies; rage changed her face into a hideous black. Her contracting brows overshadowed her forehead, the terrific faced Kali slung her Paca. She wore a wonderful Khutwanga, adorned by a string of human skulls, she wore a tiger's hide, her flesh became dried. Her mouth expanded, she had a lolling tongue, a horrible red-tinged eye, her front filled the regions. She furiously fell upon the Asuras, and destroyed the foes of deities and devoured their forces. She took Parswagrahi with one hand and Kusagrahi, Yadha-Ghumta, with the other, and put them into her mouth. Likewise the troopers' chariots with their drivers, she threw them in her mouth, and chewed them with her teeth horribly. She laid hold of some by their hair, others by the throat, or by the hand, she crushed some with her foot, broke the bosoms of others. She wrathfully swallowed up her enemies she discharged powerful arrows, and the arms of the Asuras she furiously chewed with her teeth. The magnanimous goddess devoured or crushed all the forces of the valiant Asuras. She killed some with the sword, and struck some with the Khutwanga weapon; the giants died with the pressure of her teeth. In a moment all the forces of the Asuras fell; Chanda beheld it and ran to the frightful Kali. The mighty Asura, with a shower of numerous and tremendous arrows, and thousands of Chakras speedily enveloped the dreadful eyed goddess. Abundance of the discuses she swallowed, her face became as the orbit of the sun enveloped by the clouds.

Then Kali, angrily shouted: her voice was horrible, her mouth became distended and frightful, and she gnashed her tremendous teeth. The goddess made her lion to rise, ran at Chanda, and laying hold on him by his hair, she cut off his head with her sword. After this Munda seeing the fall of Chanda, marched against her, she made him to fall on the earth and instantaneously killed him with her sword. The surviving forces perceived the fall of Chanda, and the valiant Munda, and through fear retreated in all directions. Kali took the heads of Chanda, likewise of Munda, and shoutingly exclaimed to Chandika. I have killed the great beasts Chanda and Munda, you will slay Sumbha and Nisumbha, in the sacrifice of battle. The Rishi said, she gently replied to the prosperous Kali, "as thou hast brought the heads of the great demons Chanda and Munda, you shall be renowned in the world by the name of Chamunda." Thus far is related in the seventh Chapter, comprising the death of Chanda and Munda.


The Rishi said, Chanda was killed and Munda fell, their abundant forces were diminished. The bravest lord of the Asuras, Sumbha was moved to anger, and directed all the forces of the demons to be prepared. Then the giants of various forces with eighty-six sorts of arms, eighty-four kinds of cumboos, set out in legions. One koti of heroes, fifty thousand of the giant race, the tribes of Dhoumra marched by his order. Kalikas, great Mowryas, and likewise Kalakeya, directly prepared for battle by his order. The lord of the Asuras, the frightful leader

Sumbha, advanced, attended by myriads of cohorts. Chandika viewing the approach of this dreadful army, filled the extremeties of the regions, and sky with the sound of her bow-string. The lion roared tremendously; the goddess rung the bell; Ambika shouted. The sound of the roar penetrated to the extremeties of the regions, the mouth of Devi expanded hideously. The army of the giants having heard the sound in the four points, furiously surrounded the goddess, the lion, and likewise Kali. O king! previous to the time, that the enemies of the Suras met their dissolution, for the benefit of the heroic brave immortals. The powers of Brahma, Eça, Guha, Vishnu, likewise of Indra, issued from their bodies and proceeded on their respective forms towards Chandika. The similar forms with their vehicles, ornaments, and valour of the deities went to fight with the giants. She who rode in front in a car, drawn by divine swans, with a string of beads, and a pitcher of water in her hand, she was called Brahmani. Maheswari rode on the ox, she held an excellent trident, great serpents were coiled round her, she was adorned by the signal crescent. Koumari held a Sakti in her hand, she was mounted on an excellent Mayura, and proceeded in the form of Guha to fight with the giants. Vaishnavi sitting on the Garuda, held the conch, discus, mace, Sarana, and a sword in her hand and marched out. Hari assumed the peerless form of Yagna-Varaha, took the form of the boar and attended there in a terrific shape. Narasimha assumed the dreadful body of Narasimhi, and with her mane extinguished the constellation. Indri, holder of Vajra, was mounted on a mighty elephant having one thousand eyes like Sakra. Eçana was surrounded by the Sakti1, of the deities, and said to Chandika, "kill directly the Asuras for my satisfaction." The implacable power of Chandika proceeded from the body of the goddess in a dreadful form, named Siva, whose voice increased an hundredfold. She said to Eçana, (who was smoky-hued, unattainable, and a divine messenger), "go to Sumbha and Nisumbha. Tell those proud giants to prepare for war, together with the other demons. Indra shall resume the three worlds, and gods will devour the sacrificial oblations: if they wish to live, let them go to Patala. If they presume to wage war with me, the jackals shall be glutted with their flesh. As Siva sent the message by the goddess to the giants she was called a Siva-Duta, or Siva's messenger in this world. The great Asura having hearkened to the message of the goddess sent by Siva, was transported with rage and repaired to the place where Kattyani lived. First the enemies of the immortals furiously rained showers of arrows and Saktis on the goddess. She in turn discharged the great arrows from her bow and sportively cut off their arrows by her trident, Chakra and Parusu. In their front Kali struck them with her trident, and with the Khutwanga and achieved mighty deeds. Brahmani destroyed wherever she went, the heroic and valiant enemies, by pouring water from her Kamandalu on them. Maheswari, by her trident, likewise Vaishnavi with her discus, Kaumari with her wrathful Sakti killed the giants. Indri pierced one hundred demons, and evil genies with her Kuliça, and threw them on the earth, their blood gushed out. Brahmamurti broke their breasts with the discus. By her nails, she tore and devoured many of the great Asuras; Narasimhi talked in the battle; her voice filled the directions and sky. The goddess shouted; she struck the demons to the ground and devoured them. The chief amazons detested the mighty Asuras, and the various demons were ineffectual, and having overcome their measures and stratagems, the warriors, adversaries of god, fled away. Seeing the retreat of the Daityas, the great demon Rackta-Bija, (whose blood is a seed), became enraged and proceeded to fight. When a drop of the blood from his body fell on the earth: it produced the same sized giants from the ground. The great demon holding a mace in his hand, fought with Indri, who held the Sakti Vajra. He was struck by the Kuliça, the blood gushed out: other demons immediately arose of similar form and valour. Equal in number to the drops of blood that fell from his body, demons of the same heroism, vigour and fortitude, were produced. By the severe beating of the weapons of the chief amazons as also by the cut of the Vajra, his head fell off. When the blood was streaming, thousands of demons were produced by it; Vaishnavi beat him in the battle with her discus. Indri smote the lord of giants with her mace; Vaishnavi struck him with her discus, and the blood was spilt. Thousands of the giants of the same feature abounded in this world; Kaumari beat him with her Sakti; likewise Varahi with her sword. Brahmani, with a cudgel of Brahmani, and Narasimhi tore him with her claws,

1 Sakti - power

Maheswari beat on the bosom of the great giant Rackta-Bija with her trident for he did not move. He being surrounded by the enraged chief amazons, severely beat them with his clubs. He cut off abundant of the Sakties, tridents, and so forth and made a hundred to fall on the earth. The giants produced by the blood thronged over all the world; the gods afterwards were overwhelmed by fear. Chandika looked at the discomfited Suras, and speedily said, to Kali, "O Chamunda open your mouth widely. Great Asuras are produced by the drops of the blood of Rackta-Bija, you must instantaneously lick up the blood before it falls to the ground. Devour the blood before the demons are produced; the Daityas will be diminished and become void of blood. If you do this they never can spring up again," saying thus - the goddess pierced them with her trident. Kali sucked up the blood of Rackta-Bija; Chandika beat him violently with her mace. By the vehement beatings of the clubs, a profusion of blood gushed out all over his body. Chandika licked it up; Chamunda drank his blood. Devi by her trident, arrows, sword, and fists killed Rackta-Bija, and drank his blood. He being overwhelmed by a number of arrows, O Ruler of the earth! the mighty demon Rackta-Bija, fell on the earth, and became void of blood. Afterward the deities felt the highest degree of pleasure, the chief amazons proudly danced. Thus extends the eighth Chapter, mentioning the death of the Rackta-Bija.


The Rajah said, "O divine one! you have disclosed to me the wonderful story, and the sacred action of the goddess, which exterminated Rackta-Bija. I am now desirous of hearing the actions of Sumbha, and the excessive anger of Nisumbha. The Rishi said, at the death of Rackta-Bija, and others in battle, Sumbha and Nisumbha were uncommonly enraged. Seeing their immense army destroyed, the demons were filled with ire. Nisumbha ran to their succour with considerable reinforcement. In the front, rear, and flanks, he was attended by mighty giants, who were wrathfully biting their lips, and meditating the death of the goddess. The mighty Asura Sumbha, surrounded by his force, fought with the chief amazons, and furiously proceeded towards Chandika. Sumbha and Nisumbha then commenced a dreadful combat with the goddess, and shot powerful showers of arrows, thick as clouds of rain. Chandika cut them to pieces with her own parts, and pierced both the chief Asuras with several arrows. Nisumbha then took his keen sword and resplendent shield, and struck on the head of the lion, the noble conveyance of the goddess. When her excellent animal was beaten, Chichura took a sharp sword and cut in two pieces, the shield of Nisumbha, called Asta-Chandra1. That Asura after his shield was destroyed, shot a Sakti, but as it was whizzing towards her, the goddess cleft it in twain with her discus. Then Nisumbha made a furious charge with his Sula; the goddess pulverized the hostile weapon with her fist. The demon then swung his mace at Chandika, but the goddess by her trident reduced it to calx instantaneously. After this disappointment, the chief of the Daitayas seized a battle axe and approached Devi, she levelled the warrior to the earth with her arrows. When the dreadful Nisumbha fell to the ground, his brother burning with fire repaired to kill Amvika. Being mounted on his chariot, he grasped his missiles, and potent implement, and with unequalled voice penetrated over all the sky. The goddess perceived his conning and sounded her conch and her bow-string, the noise of which was insupportable, The sound of her bell filled the etherial space; the different detachments of the Daityas were dismayed. The lion lustily roared, the sound penetrated the sky earth and the ten directions. Afterwards Kali leaped up towards heaven and kicked the ground, at the piercing sound of her voice the giants vanished. Siva-Duti, shouted at the misfortune of the Asura, the noise reached the giant Sumbha who furiously proceeded towards the goddess. Amvika said to him, O impious wretch! stand! stand! the gods immortal inhabitants of the sky have cried "victory to be thee!" Sumbha discharged a Sakti, which issuing in a terrific flame, became a mass of fire, she opposed him with a Maholka. The lion like voice of Sumbha, overspread the three world (Oh lord of the earth)! by the appalling sound of it, he hoped to conquer. The goddess cut off the arrows of Sumbha, by her own shafts, into hundreds and thousands of pieces. Chandika,

1 Asta-Chandra - literally eight moons.

was enraged, and struck him with her trident: the giant thereon fainted and fell on the earth. Nisumbha having revived, took his bow and beat the goddess Kali, and the lion with his arrows. The king of giants, with ten thousand arms, enveloped Chandika, with numerous weapons, discuses, and arrows. Then the goddess, the inaccessible, the subduer of various ills, being enraged cut off those direful weapons with her arrows into hundred pieces. Nisumbha swiftly took the club, (and attended by his giant's forces), ran to kill Chandika. The goddess destroyed his club and threw her keen sword the demon took a trident. Nisumbha, the oppressor of immortals, was going to Chandika, she broke his bosom with a Sula, with a mace fixed to it. His bosom being broke, another demon came out of him, the goddess smiled and cut off his head with her sword, and he fell on the earth. By the teeth of the lion, by Kali and Siva-Duti, other giants were decapitated. Koumari destroyed some giants by her Sakti; Brahmani with her enchanted water slew others. Maheswari demolished some by her trident Varahi by beating reduced them to powder on the earth. Vaishnavi, with her discus, crushed the giants to pieces; Indri with her weapon Vajra killed others. Many of the giants retreated, many were annihilated in that horrible war, Kali, Siva-Duti and the great lion devoured others. Thus far is related in ninth Chapter, comprising the destruction of Nisumbha.


The Rishi said, Sumbha perceived the discomfiture of his forces, and the death of his brother Nisumbha, who was dear to him as his own soul, and furiously said. "O wicked Durga! do not be proud," "O immodest one! you prevail by the aid of others." Devi said, "I am alone, who is there besides me in this world. "O profligate one! behold, it is my essence alone that is created into many forms." As she spoke Brahmani and the other goddesses dominations, and powers coalesced to her spirit; the goddess then became alone and sole. Devi said, "I can assume at will several forms, but now shall retain one form only, meet me therefore in battle." The Rishi said, after this challenge Sumbha and the goddess began a fierce combat; the gods and demons stood spectators of this dreadful encounter. With showers of arrows, powerful weapons, and cruel arms, they both desperately fought for the dominion of the universe. Amvika discharged hundreds of divine shafts, the chief of the Daityas opposed them by others. Parameswari sportively destroyed his holy arrows by the sound of her voice Humçara. The Asura covered the goddess with hundreds of arrows she growing enraged, destroyed his bow with her arrows. The chief of the giants, having lost this weapon, speedily grasped a Sakti, but the goddess cut it in pieces while it was yet in his hand. The king of the Daityas took his sword and the shield Sata-Chandra, blazing like the sun, he ran furiously towards the goddess. Chandika cut through his sword and discharged her keen arrows, pure as the beams of the sun. The giant having lost his steeds, chariot, and bow, seized a tremendous Mudgara, intending to kill Amvika. She again cut it by her keenest arrows, he ran at her with his fist. He hastily shot a musti, she made it to fall; and struck the bosom of the chief of the Daityas. The severity of the blow felled him to the earth; the king of giants speedily rose up again, and flew up to heaven with the desire of laying hold on the goddess; though he was incumbent in the skies, he fought with Chandika. They mutually fought in the sky, and performed wondrous feats in battle, to the astonishment of the sages and angels. By leaping, turning, and casting each other on the earth; they fought a long while. The ill disposed descended to the earth, directly closing his fist with an intention of killing Chandika. The goddess saw the lord of giants, coming and pierced his bosom with her trident, and made him to fall on the ground. He yielded his life, being transfixed by the trident of the goddess; as he fell on the earth, the seven islands and mountains moved. Every one was delighted at the death of the miscreant, the world was in peace; the sky became serene. The clouds dissolved in air; inauspicious omens, henceforth ceased; while the sun beams converged as usual; and the rivers flowed in the beds assigned them. All the gods were filled with joy; Gandharvas, on his death pleasantly sang. Others shouted, Apsaras danced; hallowing breezes began to blow; the sun became resplendent. The inflaming fire moderated; the noise of the elephants of the regions was hushed; the planets revolved in peace; the moon enlightened the whole firmament. Thus far is related in the tenth Chapter, containing the death of Sumbha.




The Rishi said, when the chief of the Asuras was killed by the goddess, Indra, Suras, and Vanhi appeared before her, and with joyful countenances advanced to greet Katyani for the favor she had conferred on them. O goddess! thy countenance removes the grievances of thy people, thou art the beneficent mother of the whole universe. O sovereign of the world! save the earth. Mayest thou preserve the world; thou art the goddess of animates and inanimates. Thou dost sustain alone the world in the form of the earth, O paragon of heroism! thou as water refreshest all the people. Thou art the power of Vaishnavi, thy valour is endless, thou art the element of the universe, thou art the supreme illusion, O goddess! thou bindest all things in love, thou art the great first cause, thou art the bestower of salvation on the earth, thou art the essence of all sciences, thou art the rich one, thou fillest all things, - who can praise thy holy eloquence? Thou art the bestower of heaven, and salvation on all creatures; what expression can sufficiently applaud thee? I salute thee, O goddess! Narayani, who liveth in the hearts of thy subjects, as a form of intellect, and giveth to paradise a local and unperishable abode. I salute Narayani, who protects all things in a spiritual and material form, she is the over-ruling power of the universe. I salute Narayani, who is the auspicious bestower of prosperity, happiness, and every desire; who is the conferrer of obligations, who is three eyed and brown. I salute Narayani, who has power to create, preserve, and destroy; who is the reservoir of virtue from all ages. I salute the goddess Narayani who saveth those that seek her protection, who comforteth the wretched and grieved; who is the dispeller of all sorrows. I salute Narayani, who sits mounted on a car, drawn by divine swans, who asumes the form of Brahmani, and eats vegetables. I salute Narayani, holder of the Suras, Chundra, Jyuda, who rides on the ample ox in the form of Maheswari. I salute Narayani, attended by the peacock, and holder of the mighty mountain on her nails who acquired the form of Kaumari. I salute Narayani, the possessor of the Sanka, Chakra, Gada, and Sarna; who favors all in the form of Vaishnavi. I salute Narayani, who took the ample Chakra, and sustained the earth on her proboscis, in the form of Varaha and Siva. I salute Narayani, who assumed the wrathful form of Nrisimhi, and slew the giants to preserve the three worlds. I salute Narayani, who is crowned Indra, the holder of the Vajra, who glowes with one thousand eyes, the drawer of the soul of Vritra. I salute Narayani, who destroyed the valiant giants, in the form of Siva Duti, whose form was dreadful in the great battle. I salute Narayani, whose teeth and mouth are frightful like the lions; and who is adorned by a necklace of skulls; the crusher of the head of Chamunda; the modest; the omniscient; the faithful; and strong Swadha; the steady; the mighty; and the skilled in abundant arts. I salute Narayani, who is intelligence and excellence; Sarawati; the bestower of prosperity; the wrathful; the austere; and the giver of all benefits. I salute the goddess Durga, who has mainfold forms; who is the lord of all things: abounding with different powers; the saviour of the fearful. I salute Katyani, whose face is mild; who is adorned with three eyes; who preserves all creatures. I salute Bhadra-Kali, whose face is terrific; who destroyed the whole race of giants; may such a trident guard the fearful. May the bell of the goddess, the sound of which has appalled the energy of the giants, and penetrated through all the worlds: preserve us as its children. We prostrate ourselves to Chandika, whose exquisitely bright sword was stained by the blood and flesh of the giants; and became the instrument of the death of Sumbha. Thou healing from all kind of disorders, givest pleasure and strength to all people; those that desire to follow thee, shall not feel distress, but will be restored. Thou hast destroyed the great Asuras, who are the enemies of virtue, by thy actions and transfigurations. Thou art supremely exalted in the sciences; in knowledge; in wisdom; in eloquence; in virtuous practice; the world is overwhelmed in the excess of thy love. Thou dwellest even among venomous serpents; amongst hardened and depraved robbers; and where there are combustibles and fire; thou art in the sea, and thou supportest the world. O Goddess of the universe! thou shouldest preserve the world, thou pervadest through the world holding it. The world prostrates itself to thee; thou art followed by the world; thou art faithfully loved by the world. O Goddess! protect and preserve the people from the fear of enemies, by destroying always the giants, as thou didst of late: extinguish the sins of the world, which proceed from accidental causes. O Goddess! thou shouldest favour him, who humbly bows; O dispeller of universal alarm! the inhabitants of the three worlds, shall

prostrate themselves to thee; O bless the people! Devi said, "O band of Suras! I will bless you; ask, and I will bestow what you desire, for the benefit of the gods." The Devas replied, "O supreme goddess of the three worlds! we solicit thee to expel all danger and destroy our enemies; this is thy task." Devi said, on the twenty-eighth age of Vibhaswatta, Sumbha, and Nisumbha, shall be regenerated. I shall reside on the mountain of Vindhya, I shall be born in the race of cowherds in the womb of Yasoda, and destroy them. I shall be incarnate on the earth, and shall slay the great giant Viprochitta, I shall have my teeth red, like pomegranate flowers, then all the gods and mankind shall give me applause and call me constantly Racta-Dantica. A famine shall happen for one hundred years without rain; being greeted by the sages I shall be self-born. Then shall I look at the sages with one hundred eyes, therefore mortals will call me Satakshi, (or hundred eyes.) The whole world shall subsist by the divine vegetable, which shall be produced from my body until the rain shall fall. I shall be esteemed in the earth by the name of Sacumbhari, the preserver by vegetables, I shall be denominated Durga Devi. I again shall assume a dreadful form on the mountain Himachala, and devour the giants to protect the sages: all the ascetics will bow and applaud me. I shall be called Bhima-Devi, when Aruna shall disturb the three world; then I shall turn a roving beettle. I will destroy the great giant for the advantage of these three worlds: all will applaud me by the name of Bramhani in the world. Whenever disturbances shall arise from the giants, then I shall incarnate and destroy the enemies. Thus far is related in the eleventh Chapter, mentioning the death of Sumbha and Nisumbha.




Devi said, he who for ever joyfully applauds me, him I will undoubtedly shield from all kinds of danger. Whoever recites the dissolution of Madhu and Kaitabha, and the destruction of Mahishasura; likewise the death of Sumbha and Nisumbha, on the Astami or eighth, Navami or ninth, Chaturdasi or fourteenth, with an intent and pure heart and faithfully praise of my noble actions, they shall incur no manner of sin, shall never be exposed to distress, and never suffer any trouble, or feel any pain. Nor shall he be in fear of foes, or thieves, or fire, sword, or water, at any period. Therefore my actions should at all times be chaunted in peace voluntarily; and always be heard with joy. All the dangers of evil and the three different plagues1, shall be counteracted by my meritorious deeds. Whoever daily attentively reads my words in his house I shall not leave, but dwell in his presence. During the offering of food to Bali worship, fire oblation, or festival, mankind should completely read and hear my actions. Whoever either knowingly or ignorantly gives the offering, food, or fire oblation; Whoever yearly performs the adoration in the Sarat (or sultry season), and hears willingly my action recited, they will undoubtedly obtain my favour. Whoever hears my consecration, prosperity will attend him, and he shall be brave in combat. Their enemies shall be destroyed; the rich will attend, and listen to my miracles the race of mankind will be pleased. Every where, when the preliminary ceremonies are performed, evil dreams, the inauspicious aspect of the planets shall cease during the recital of my actions. The disturbances, the malignant influence of the planets will discontinue, unlucky dreams shall turn out prosperous. Evils to which children are liable from demons, I will remove, and heal the breach of friendship in my people. By reading it with strict faith, the strength of all ill-disposed-persons, the giants, demons, and evil spirits, shall be destroyed! Whoever brings me an offering of noble beasts, of flowers, Arghya incense, sandal and tapers; Whoever feeds the Vipras, performs the various rites of the Homa, every day and night; Pleases me throughout a year, and hearkens to my actions, shall have their sins remitted and shall obtain the blessings of earth. I will preserve all creatures, who read of my birth and deeds in words comprising the dissolution of the wicked giants. They shall not be in fear of foes and shall obtain the praise of sacred sages. This is ordained by Brahma who provides for the prosperous wise. If in the skirts of the wilderness parched by devouring fire; While surrounded by robbers in the plain, attacked by the lion, tigers, or wild elephants; If a king be enraged and give order to bind or execute a person accused of any crime, if any one fail in the wide ocean; When in danger of the sword,

1 Three different plagues, viz., Adhi-Infirmity, Viadhi-disease, and Itibadha - annoyance by animals.

when fallen in a well or in battle, when in imminent risk and tormented by pain; Should any one chaunt my actions, I will remove from him his afflictions though they be as fierce as the lion. By repeating my action, all dangers will be dispelled. The Rishi said, the warlike goddess Chandika, while saying this, and as the deities were gazing on her, suddenly vanished, and the gods regained their former authorities without any obstruction. Their enemies being destroyed, they enjoyed the sacrificial oblations, after the demons and Sumbha were slain by the goddess in battle. The disturber of the universe, the brave peerless and mighty Nisumbha being dead, the surviving giants retreated to Patala. O King! the divine goddess was repeatedly incarnated to preserve the world, she shackles and creates the universe. She gives knowledge, pleasure, intellect. O sovereign of mortals, she pervades throughout the globe of Brahma. Maha-Kali in the form of a great goddess, the high illusion, the ancient, creates the world occasionally. And promotes wealth in the lives of the people in future period; where she is not present their misfortunes cause ruin. Whoever praises and worships her with flowers, sandal, incense, and so forth, she gives them prosperity, offspring, virtues, &c. Thus far extends the twelfth Chapter, mentioning the advantages of praying to the goddess.




O King, these are the excellent actions of the Devi I mentioned now, such is this glorious goddess, the holder of the universe. The illusion of the divine Vishnu constructed this vast machine; by her, you, the Vysa, and others are being bound in love. O chief sovereign, go to the assylum of the goddess, whoever adores her, will enjoy both heaven and earth. Markandeya said, Surdha, hearkened to his words; the chief of mankind, the possessor of great shares, prostrated himself before him and made a vow. Being puzzled by love, and deprived of his kingdom, he instantly repaired to perform devotion. The Vysa remained on the shoal of the river to have an interview with goddess. He performed the devotion praying, repeating the Devi-Sukti, he made a clay form of the goddess on the shoal, and invoked her with flowers, incense, Arghya, Tarpana, and other offerings. He mortified his body, and in this manner he worshipped for three years. Chandika, the matron of the world, being pleased, appeared to him, and said, "O King, Prince of a goodly tribe! I have heard you pray, and cheerfully bestow on you all you request. Markandeya said, the monarch being distressed, entreated her to restore his realm, vanquished by the arms of his enemies. He Vysa, having a susceptible heart, implored from her wisdom, and abstraction from social and secular concerns. Devi said to the king, O lord of men! you will destroy your enemies and resume your kingdom; you shall afterwards die and be regenerated as Vibhaswata, by the name of Savarnika Manu of the earth. O excellent Vysa, according to your desires you shall obtain wisdom, the goddess thus blessed them and granted their desires; she then vanished. Suradha, the chief Chatreyah, having thus obtained her blessings, became Savurni Manu in his next birth. Thus far is related in the thirteenth Chapter, containing the plaudits of Chandika, and ends Chandipat Parvas.




Markandeya said: - I have thus related to you in full the Manwantara of Manu Savarni, the glories of the goddess and the destruction of the buffalloe-faced demon; (1) the origin of the goddess and other mothers in the great encounter as well as the origin of the goddess Chamunda. (2) Besides I have described to you the glories of Shivadyuti, the destruction of Sumbha and Nishumbha and as well as that of Rakta-Vija. (3) Hear, O foremost of Munis, of another Savarni. This Savarni is the son of Daksha and is the future ninth Manu. (4) O Muni, I shall describe now who will be the gods, sages, and kings. Para, Marichibharga and Sudharma - these will be the three classes of deities. (5) These three classes will again severally be divided into twelve each. Their future king will be highly powerful and thousand-eyed. (6) The six-faced deity, who is now living as Kartikeya, the son of the fire, will be the king, by name Advuta, of the Manwantara of this Manu. (7) Medhathiti, Vasu, Satya, Yotishman, Dyutiman, Savala, Havyavahana - these will be the seven Rishis. (8) Dhrishtaketu, Varhaketu, Panchahasta, Niramaya, Prithushrava, Arthishman, Bhidyurimna,

Vrihadvaya - will be the sons of that Daksha's son and kings. Listen, O twice-born one, I shall now describe the Manwantara of the tenth Manu. (9-10) During this tenth Manwantara of the intelligent son of Brahma Sukhasenas and Nirudhas will be the gods. (11) During (the regime) of this future Manu the gods will be a hundred in number - as the gods will be a hundred in number so will be the creatures. (12) Santi will be the king of all these gods and endowed with all the accomplishments of Indra. Hear now from me, who will be the seven Rishis at that period. (13) Apomurti, Havishman, Sukrita, Satya, Nabhaga, Apratishtha and Vashishtha will be the seven Rishis. (14) And Sukshetra, Uttamonja, Bhurisena, Viryavana, Shatanika, Vrishabha, Anamitra, Jayadratha, Bhuridyumna, and Suparva -these will be born as the sons of that Manu. Hear now of the Manwantara of Savarni, the son of Dharma. (15-16) (At that period) there will spring into existence three classes of gods each severally divided into thirty. (17) Amongst them, months, seasons and days will be the lords of creations and birds, nights and moments will be able to move on at their will. (18) Their lord will be known by the name of Vrisha of well-known prowess. Havishman, Varishtha, Rishthi, Aruni, Nishchara, Vrishthi and Agni will be the seven Rishis at that Manwantara. (19-20) Sarvaga, Susharman, Devanika, Purudvaha, Hemadhanva, Drirayu will be his sons and kings. (21) Hear, who will be the gods and Munis during the Manwantara of the Manu, by name Savarni, the son of Rudra.

(22) Sudharmanas, Sumanas, Haritas, Rohitas and Suvarnas will be the five classes of deities each severally divided into ten. (23) Know of the highly powerful Ritadhama as their lord endued with all the qualities of Indra, hear, now, from me of the seven Rishis. (24) Dyuti, Tapashvi, Sutapas, Tapomurti, Taponidhi, Taporati, and Tapodhriti will be the seven Rishis.

(25) Devavan, Upadeva, Devashrestha, Viduratha, Mitravan, and Mitsravinda - will be the sons of that Manu and kings. (26) Hear, I shall now relate to you the sons of the thirteenth Manu Rochya, the seven Rishis, kings and gods. (27) O foremost of Munis, Sudharmas, Sukarmas, and Susharmas will be the gods of that period. (28) Their king will be Divashpati of great Strength and prowess. Hear, I shall now describe the seven Rishis that will be. (29) Dhritman, Avya, Tatwadarshi, Niratsuka, Nirmoha, Sutapas and Nishprakampa will be the seven Rishis. (30) Chitaasena, Vichitra, Nayati, Nirbhaya, Drida, Sunetra, Kshatravuddhi, and Suvrata will be the sons of that Manu. (31)




Markandeya said: - In the days of yore, the Patriarch Ruchi, being shorn of attachments, pride and fear and restraining his sleep, travelled all over the earth. (1) Seeing him divorced from fire, home, hermitage and company and living on one meal his departed manes said to that ascetic: (2) "O child, why dost thou not go through the most sacred marriage which is the source of heaven and emancipation and the absence of which brings on fetters. (3) Having worshipped the gods, the manes, the Rishis and the guests a householder enjoys the various lokas. (4) (By not taking a (wife) you are being daily fettered by the debts due to the gods, manes, humanity and other creatures. (5) He should worship the deities with the exclamations of Swaha the manes with those of Swadha and the guests with food. (6) Without having engendered progeny and brought about the satisfaction of the gods and manes how dost thou, out of foolishness, aspire to a better state? (7) We perceive the various miseries that will befall you for leading a single life. You will attain to hell after death and suffer miseries even in your next birth." (8)

Ruchi said: - Marriage leads to excessive misery, hell and wretched existence; it is for this I did not marry before. (9) The control of the self by various good processes is the instrument of emancipation and not marriage. (10) To wash daily the soul that is sullied with the mire of egotism, with the water of eternal consciousness shorn of attachment is the most excellent course. (11) Therefore having controlled the senses the wise should wash their souls sullied with the mire of actions begotten in various births with the water of good desire." (12)

The Manes said: - "Of course it is proper that one, having controlled his senses, should wash his soul. But, O child, will the path in which you are now stationed, lead to liberation? (13) As ones' sin is destroyed by making gifts divorced from the desire of fruits so the pristine actions are destroyed by going through the result, good or bad. (14) He, who thus engages in charitable works, is not fettered (by actions); one, by thus engaging in action without desire,

is freed from all bonds. (5) Thus pristine actions are destroyed by day and night going through happiness and misery; the ways of mankind are thus identical with virtue and vice. (16) In this way the wise wash their souls and guard them against bonds for which the soul is not deprived of conscience and accordingly is not sunk in the mire of sin." (17)

Ruchi said: - O ancestors, the road of action, has been mentioned in the Vedas as ignorance then how do you engage me in that action? (18)

The Manes said: - True it is ignorance, but that ignorance is engendered by action is false; on the other hand without doubt action produces knowledge. (19) The self-restraint, that is undergone by the wicked for emancipation without having made arrangements for the satisfaction of their duties, brings on, on the contrary, a worse state. (20) O child, you have made up your mind to wash thy soul but (on the contrary) you are being consumed by sins begotten by the negligence of duties. (21) If administered by proper means ignorance conduces to the well-being of mankind like poison; it never brings on bonds for them. (22) Therefore O child, marry properly; let not your life prove futile by wending the way not approved of by mankind. (23)

Ruchi said: - O ancestors, I am now an old man, who will confer a wife on me? Besides I am a poor man so it is very difficult for me to take a wife. (24)

The Manes said: - O child, if you do not hear us, we shall fall down and along with us you will be subjected to a wretched state. (25)

Markandeya said: - O foremost of Munis, having said this, the manes disappeared before the very eyes of Ruchi, like a light put out by the wind. (26)




Hearing the words of the ancestral manes his mind was greatly agitated and that Brahmana saint, desirous of having a bride, wandered over the earth. (1) But being unable to secure a bride and burnt by the fire of the words of the manes he was stricken with great anxiety and his mind was agitated. (2) (He thought) "Where shall I go? What shall I do? How can I secure a bride by which immediate prosperity may be secured unto my ancestors". (3) Thus thinking the high-souled one arrived at the determination: - "By ascetic observances I shall worship the lotus-sprung deity Brahma". (4) Thereupon he carried on devout penances dedicated to Brahma for a hundred celestial years. And observing proper regulations he worshipped him.

(5) Thereat the Great Patriarch Brahma appeared before him and said, "I am pleased with thee, tell me what thou desirest". (6) Thereupon saluting Brahma, the lord of the universe, he communicated unto him what he sought for in accordance with the words of the ancestral manes. And hearing of his wished for object Brahma said to the Vipra Ruchi. (7) "Thou shalt be a patriarch and create progeny. Having created progeny and begotten sons and performed all the ceremonies, thou shalt, at the expiration of thy time, attain to Siddhi. Therefore as commanded by thy manes do thou take a wife. (9) Having thus determined do thou worship thy ancestral manes. They, being pleased, will confer upon thee, thy wished for spouse and offspring; when gratified what cannot the ancestral manes give"? (10)

MARKANDEYA said: -Hearing those words of the unborn Brahma he began to offer oblations to the manes on the banks of the river Vivikti. (11) With whole mindedness, care and with his shoulders bending low with humility that Vipra began to propitiate them with the following hymns. (12)

Ruchi said: - Salutation unto those ancestral manes who appear as presiding deities on the occasion of the Sraddhas and whom even the celestials gratify with the recitation of Swadhas. (14) Salutation unto those ancestral manes in heaven whom even the great saints, desirous of emancipation, gratify at Sraddhas with great devotion. (14) Salutation unto those ancestral manes whom in heaven even the Siddhas, on the occasion of Sraddhas propitiate with the present of diverse most excellent celestial articles. (15) Salutation unto the manes, whom even the Guhyakas, desirous of great Riddhi, propitiate with whole-minded devotion.

(16) Salutation unto those manes whom the mortals on earth propitiate by performing

Sraddhas with reverence and who confer on them wished for regions. (17) Salutation unto those ancestral manes whom the Brahmanas worship on earth for the attainment of desired for objects and on whom they confer the dignity of patriarchs. (18) Salutation unto those ancestral manes who are worshipped by the dwellers of the forest who have their sins washed off by devout penances and with regulations laid down in the Aranyakas accompanied by the restriction of diet. (19) Salutation unto those manes who are propitiated duly by the Brahmanas, observant of pure rites, who engage in meditation by controlling themselves. (20) Salutation unto those ancestral manes capable of conferring the fruits of the three worlds whom the Kshatryas worship with Swadhas and with various Kavyas. (21) Salutation unto those manes who are daily worshipped by the Vaisyas on this earth, intent upon the performance of the duties of their own order with flowers, incense, food and water.

(22) Salutation unto those manes who are celebrated under the name of Sukalin, to whom on this earth Sudras offer oblations on the occasion of the Sraddhas. (23) Salutation unto those manes whom the Asuras, renouncing pride and haughtiness, worship in the nether region on the occasion of the Sraddhas and whose food is Swadha. (24) Salutation unto those manes whom the Nagas in Rasatala duly worship in view of many desired for objects by performing Sraddhas accompanied by various objects of enjoyment. (25) Salutation unto those manes, whom even the serpents in Rasatala gratify by reciting duly Mantras and dedicating objects of enjoyment on the occasion of a Sraddha. (26) Salutation unto those manes who reside in the region of the celestials, in etherial atmosphere and on the earth and whom even the deities worship. May they accept what I dedicate unto them. (27) Salutation unto those ancestral manes who are the great souls, and who, assuming forms, drive the chariots, with whom the ascetics of pure souls seek refuge and who are the instruments of the cessation of miseries. (28) Salutation unto those ancestral manes who live in heaven with forms, who live on Swadha, who are capable of fulfilling all desires, who confer emancipation on those shorn of desire, who grant the fulfillment of the desires of those who seek them, who confer the dignity of gods, that of Indra, or even that superior to it, and who give offspring, animals, wealth, strength, home and other things. May they be gratified with my humility. (29-30) May those ancestral manes find gratification in the water, food and scents and attain to nourishment therefrom, and who reside in the rays of the moon, rays of the sun and white cars. (31) May those ancestral manes here be propitiated with the water and food offered by me, who are satisfied with Havi offered in the fire, who take their food in the guise of the Brahmanas and who are delighted with the offerings of pinda. (32) May they attain to gratification here who are propitiated by the celestials and leading saints with the meat of rhinoceros, beautiful celestial black sesame and black vegetables. (33) I dedicate those scents, food and edibles unto them, who find delight in various Kavyas and who are adored by the immortals; may they come nearer. (34) May those ancestral manes find gratification here who accept worship every day, at the end of every month, at Ashtaka and are worshipped at the end of every year. (35) I always bow unto those ancestral manes who, invested with the lustre of lilies and the moon, are worshipped by the Brahmanas, by the Kshatriyas in their hue of the rising sun, by the Vaisyas in the hue of pure gold and by the Sudras in that of dark-blue. May they find gratification from the incense, food, Water etc., which I dedicate as well as from the Homa ceremony. (36-37) I bow unto them who feed, with great satisfaction, on Kavyas that are offered to the deities in the holy fire, and delighted thereat who bestow various prosperity; may they be propitiated here. (38) I bow unto them who extirpate the Rakshasas, the fierce Asuras and the ghosts and destroy the inauspiciousness of creatures, who are the precursors of the celestials, and who are worshipped by the leading immortals. May they find gratification here. (39) I offer oblations to the ancestral manes called Agnishvatwa, Vahirshada, Ajyapa and Somapa; may they find gratification in this Sraddha. (40) May the ancestral manes called Agnishvatwa protect my western side and may the ancestral manes called Vahirshada protect my south. (41) May the manes called Ajyapa protect the east and the ancestral manes called Somapa the north. May their king Yama protect me against the Rakshasas, ghosts, Picachas and Asuras. Vishwa, Vishwabhuk, Aradhya, Dharma, Dhanya, Shubhanana, Bhutida, Bhutikrit and Bhuti these are the nine classes of the ancestral manes. (42-43) Again Kalyana, Kalyata, Karta, Kalya, Kalyatarashraya, Kalyatapetu and Avadha - these are the six classes. (44) Vara, Varenya,

Varada, Pushtida, Tushtida, Vishwapata and Dhata these are the seven classes. (45) Mahan, Mahatma, Mahita, Mahimavan, Mahavala - these five constitute the class that destroys sins.

(46) Sukhada, Dhanada, Dharmada, Bhutida, these are the four classes of the ancestral manes mentioned. (47) These are the thirty-one classes of the ancestral manes who reside all over the entire universe. May they obtain satisfaction and nourishment at my Sraddha and always encompass my well-being. (48)




MARKANDEYA said: - While he was thus chanting the glories (of the manes) a bundle of effulgence came within his perception and was spread all over the sky. (1) Beholding that great stationary effulgence enveloping the universe, Ruchi, kneeling down, chanted the following hymn. (2)

Ruchi said: - I bow always unto the manes who are worshipped of all, who have no forms, who have burning effulgence, who are always engaged in meditation and who have celestial vision. (3) I salute them, who are the leaders of Indra and others, as well as of Daksha, Marichi and the seven Rishis and who bestow all desired for objects. (4) I always bow unto those manes who are the leaders of Manu and other principal saints as well as those of the sun, moon, and the ocean. (5) I salute them with folded palms who guide the stars, planets, the air, the fire, sky, heaven and earth. (6) I always salute them with folded hands who are the progenitors of the celestial saints, who are saluted by all the world, who always bestow everlasting fruits. (7) I bow unto Prajapati, Kashyapa, Soma, Varuna, and the other Yogins. (8) Salutation unto the seven Ganas who live in the seven regions; I bow unto the Self-sprung Brahma, who has yoga for his eyes. (9) I bow unto the manes of whom Soma is the stay and who have yoga for their forms and unto Soma (himself) who is the father of the world. (10) I bow unto those other ancestral manes who have the fire for their forms and from whom this endless universe, full of Agnishtoma, has emanated. (11) With a controlled mind I bow again and again unto all those ancestral manes, effulgence is whose support, fire and the sun are whose forms, the universe and Brahman are whose real nature and who always carry on yoga. May they, who feed on Swadha, be propitiated with me. (12-13)

Markandeya said: - O foremost of Munis, having been thus eulogised the manes, lighting the ten quarters with their effulgence, came out. (14) He beheld them before him, adorned with flowers, perfumeries and pastes, that he had dedicated unto them. (15) Then again bending low with reverence he again honored them severally exclaiming "I bow unto you! I bow unto you!". (16) Thereupon the ancestral manes, delighted, said to that foremost of ascetics: "Pray for a boon." He too hanging his head said: -(17) "O lord, I have been commanded by Brahma to engender progeny; therefore I wish to take a wife who may be of a heavenly and glorious life and may give birth to children. (18)

The ancestral Manes said: - Immediately at this very moment there shall spring up a charming wife for thee, thou shalt beget on her a son, who shall be a Manu. (19) O Ruchi, that intelligent lord of a Manwantara shall be designated by thy name and he will acquire reputation all over the three worlds under the appellation of Rouchya. (20) He will be the father of many highly powerful and high-souled sons who will be all the protectors of the world. (21) Thou, too, conversant with virtue as thou art, and a patriarch having created four classes of progeny, shalt, on the expiration of thy regime, attain to Siddhi. (22) We will be pleased with that man who will reverentially chant our glories with this hymn and shall confer upon him various objects of enjoyments, the most excellent knowledge of self, good health, children and grand children. Therefore those, who will seek these, must eulogise us with the hymn first instituted by thee. (22-24) Whoever, that shall on the occasion of a Sraddha, chant this hymn, so pleasing to us, with reverence before the leading Brahmanas while taking their meals, when we, delighted with hearing this hymn, shall approach there, shall have Sraddha done without any obstacle. There is no doubt in this. (25-26) If that Sraddha be without any Shrotrya, if it be sullied in any way, either with the spending of ill-gotten wealth or otherwise, when carried on by unfair means, or at a bad time, bad place or in an irregular process or if that Sraddha be instituted with haughtiness or irreverence still if this hymn be sung that shall

conduce to our gratification. (27-29) If this hymn, conducing to our satisfaction, be chanted at a Sraddha we shall obtain gratification extending over twelve years. (30) If it is chanted in Hemanta (season of dews) it shall give us gratification for twelve years, if in winter this excellent hymn shall give us satisfaction for twice the period. (31) If it is chanted on the occasion of a Sraddha in spring it shall give us gratification for sixteen years and when performed in summer it shall also afford us gratification for sixteen years. (32) O Ruchi, if a Sraddha be performed imperfectly during rains, this hymn, if chanted then, shall afford us everlasting gratification. (33) If it is chanted on the occasion of a Sraddha during autumn it confers upon us gratification extending over fifteen years. (34) In a house where this is daily kept written if a Sraddha is performed it at once draws us near. (35) Therefore when the Brahmanas are engaged in taking their meals at a Sraddha, you should, O great one, make them listen to it, and we shall then be satisfied. (36) By listening to his hymn, or reciting it in mind one reaps the same fruit as is reaped by the performance of a Sraddha at Gya, Pushkara, Kurukshetra or Naimisha. Having conferred this boon on Ruchi the ancestral manes attained to Siddhi. (37)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon from the middle of the river there arose before him a most beautiful and charming Apsara of slender make by name Premlocha. (1) That excellent Apsara Premlocha, of fair eye-brows, bending low with humility, addressed the high-souled Ruchi with sweet accents, (2) "Do thou accept as thy wife, O foremost of the ascetics, the most beautiful daughter of mine, begotten on me by the high-souled Pushkara, the son of Varuna. She will give birth to thy son, the highly intelligent Manu. (3-4) He having given his consent she took up from the water her daughter of a fair body by name Malini. (5) Thereupon having brought together all the leading ascetics that foremost of ascetics Ruchi espoused her duly on the banks of the river. (6) He begot on her a highly energetic and intelligent son who was celebrated on earth as Rouchya after the name of his father. (7) I have already related to you in detail the gods, Rishis, the king and his sons of that Manwantara. (8) Forsooth, a man, hearing of this Manwantara, secures an acquisition of wraith, freedom from diseases, prosperity, corns and offspring. (9) O great Muni, hearing of the above mentioned hymn of the manes, and of their number, one, by their grace, has all his desires accomplished. (10)




Markandeya said: - Hear now of origin of Bhoutya, of the gods, Rishis, his sons and the kings. (1) Angiras had a highly wrathful disciple by name Bhuti. For a trifle he used to imprecate a dreadful curse and he never knew what a sweet word was. (2) In his hermitage the wind could not blow high, the sun could not pour fierce rays and the clouds could not discharge rain in such a way as to create much mud. (3) Even the moon, when full, used to pour not very cold rays. Afraid of that fierce and wrathful (Rishi) the seasons, renouncing their natural order, used to cover, at his command, all the trees of his hermitage with the fruits and flowers of all seasons. (4-5) Afraid of the powers of that high-souled one the waters, near his hermitage, used always to enter into his kamandalu at his pleasure. (6) O Vipra, he was highly wrathful and could not bear the least inconvenience. That great man had no issue and therefore made up his mind to carry on devout penances. (7) He thought, "Desirous of having a son and accordingly restraining my diet and being exposed to cold, wind and fire I shall carry on devout penances" and accordingly he made up his mind so. (8) Then the moon began to pour not very cold rays, the sun not very warm rays and the wind blew not very roughly, O great Muni. (9) When not assailed by contraries that foremost of Munis, Bhuti did not attain his wished for object he desisted from his penances. (10) His brother Suvarcha undertook a sacrifice and invited him to perform it. Desirous of goining there he said to his highly intelligent disciple, Shanti by name, who was of a quiescent mind, humble, ever ready for his preceptor's work, of good conduct, generous and the foremost of Munis. (11-12)

Bhuti said: - O Santi, I shall be present at the sacrifice of my brother Suvarchas. Hear, what thou shalt have to do. (13) Always awake thou shalt, with every care, so keep the fire in my hermitage that it may not be extinguished. (14)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having thus commanded him and his disciple Santi saying 'so be it' the preceptor, invited by his elder brother, proceeded to be present at his Yajna. (15) And Santi too collected, from the forest, twigs, flowers and fruits for the maintenance of his high-souled preceptor. (16) When filled with devotion to his preceptor he engaged in other actions the fire, that was kept up by Bhuti, was extinguished. (17) Beholding that fire extinguished Santi was greatly sorry and afraid of Bhuti the highly intelligent one began to think in many ways. (18) "What shall I do? How will the preceptor come here? What shall I do to-day? By doing what shall I reap good? (19) If by my luck the preceptor beholds his fire extinguished he will throw me to-day into dreadful misery. (20) If I place another fire here in the room of this fire he will surely reduce me to ashes for he sees everything. (21) Sinful as I am I have thus become the subject of both the anger and curse of my preceptor. I do not grieve so much for myself as do I for the iniquity committed towards the preceptor. (22) Forsooth, beholding the fire extinguished the preceptor will imprecate a curse on me or even the fire worked up with anger for that twice-born one is equally powerful. (23) He, terrified by whose prowess even the celestials carry on his behest for what reason will he not curse me who have committed a sin? (24)

Markandeya said: - Thinking thus in many way, he, the foremost of the intelligent and always afraid of his preceptor, sought refuge with the fire. (25) Then controlling his mind and kneeling down he, with whole-mindedness and folded hands, began to recite the following hymn. (26)

Santi said: - Om! Salutation unto the high-souled (Agni) who is the stay of all creatures, who residest at the Rajshyua sacrifice in sixfold forms. (27) Salutation unto fire who gives maintenance to all the deities, who is highly effulgent, who is in the form of Shukra and who is the supporter of the endless world. (28) Thou art the mouth of all the gods, through thee the Lord taketh sacrificial offerings and pleaseth the entire host of the celestials; thou art the life of all the gods. (29) The Havi, that is offered unto thee, becomes highly pure and is then converted into air. (30) By it are created all the plants. O thou the charioteer of the wind, all the creatures live happily on all these endless plants. (31) With the plants created by thee men perform sacrifices. And by these sacrifices O fire, the gods, Daityas and Rakshasas are pleased. O fire, thou art the supporter of all these sacrifices. O fire, thou art the source of all and identical with all. (22-33) The gods Danavas, Yakshas, men, beasts, trees, wild animals, birds, reptiles are all satisfied and nourished by thee, O fire. They all originate from thee and meet with dissolution in thee. (34-35) O God, thou dost create the water and thou dost drink it up; and all the (plants) when rotten by thee conduce to the nourishment of creatures. (36) Thou dost reside as effulgence in the midst of the gods, as physical grace in the midst of the Siddhas, as poison with the serpents and as air in the midst of the birds. (27) Thou art anger amongst men, stupidity in the beasts and birds. Thou art the stay in trees and hardness in the earth. (38) O lord, thou art the liquid element in water, the velocity in the air, the space in the sky and as the soul every where. (39) Thou dost travel in the hearts of all creatures and protect them. O fire, the poets sometimes describe thee as one and again as three. (40) And again designating thee as eight the Prime Purusha undertook the sacrifice. The great Rishis say that this universe has been created by thee. (41) O fire, without thee, this whole universe at once meets with dissolution. By adoring thee with Havya and Kavya and with the recitation of Swaha and Swadha a twice-born one attains to a position ascertained by his own actions. Thou art also worshiped by the immortals. Having emanated from thee, the scintillations, the end, soul and energy of creatures, burn down the entire elemental creation. Thou art Jataveda, thou art highly effulgent. - thou hast created this universe. (42-44) Thou art the author of Vedic rites and the universe, identical with all the elements. Salutation unto thee, O Anala, O Pingaksha, O Hutasana. (45) Salutation unto thee, O Pavaka, who art the beginning of all; Salutation unto thee, O Havyavahana (the carrier of sacrificial offerings). Thou dost cook what is eaten or drunk; thou dost purify the entire universe. (46) Thou dost make the corns ripe - thou art the nourisher of the universe - the cloud, the air, the seed of the corns.

(47) Thou dost nourish all creatures and thou art the past, present and future; thou art the light in all the elements - and art Aditya and Vibhavasu. (48) Thou art the day and the night and two Sandhyas. O Vanhi, thou art Hiranyaretas and thou art the cause of the origin of Hiranya. (49) Thou art Hiranyagarbha - thou art bright like gold - art the moment and Khana (lesser division

of the time); thou art Truti and Lava. (50) O lord of the universe, thou dost exist in the shape of Kata, Kashtha, Nimesha and other divisions of time. Thou art the entire universe and Kala identical with the dissolution of all. (51) O lord, do thou protect us from all fear, sin and the great dread of this world as well as of the next with thy tongue called Kali which is the support of Kala. (52) Do thou save us from all sins and the great terror of this world with thy tongue called Karala which is the instrument of the great dissolution. (53) Do thou save us from all sins and the great dread of this life with thy that tongue which is called Manojava gifted with the quality of Laghima. (54) Do thou save us from all sorts of sins and the great fear of this life with thy that tongue which is called Sulohita and grants the desires of all creatures.

(55) Do thou save us from all sorts of sins and the great fear of this world with thy that tongue which is called Dhrumravarna and which is the cause of the diseases of all creatures. (56) Do thou save us from all sins and the great fear of this world with that thy tongue which is called Sphulaga and is the root of the well-being of all. (57) Do thou save us from all sins and the great fear of this life with thy that tongue which is called Vishwa and which gives peace to all creatures. (58) Thou art Pingaksha (yellow-eyed) Lohitagriva (dark-necked) of black hue and Hutashana. Do thou save me from all sins and the great danger of this world. (59) O Vahni, O Saptarchi, O Krishanu, O Havyavahan, be thou pleased. I recite thy eight names as Agni, Pavaka, Sukra etc. (60) Be thou propitiated, O Agni, O the first born of all the elements, O Vibhavasu, O Habyavaha, O eternal and O thou identical with hymns. (68) Thou art eternal, incomprehensible Vahni, prosperous, greatly fierce and hard to bear. Thou art undecaying, dreadful and dost destroy all the worlds. Thou art highly powerful and hast a form. (62) Thou art most excellent, the heart of all energies, art endless and worshipped of all. From thee has emanated this universe, mobile and immobile. O Hutashana, thou art one and many. (63) Thou art undecaying, art this earth with mountains and forests, art the sky with the sun and the moon, art the time with the day and night and art the forest-fire lying in the womb of the great ocean. By thy great lustre thou dost reside in the rays. (64) The great saints, observant of regulations, always worship thee as Hutasana in the great sacrifice. Invited at the sacrifice thou dost drink the soma Juice and Havi after reciting Vasatkara for the prosperity (of the creatures). (65) For reaping fruits the Brahmanas always worship thee on this earth. Thou art being chanted in all the Vedas and their branches. With a view to worship thee all the leading twice-born ones always master the Vedas. (66) Thou art Brahma ever intent on performing sacrifices; thou art Vishnu, Siva, Indra, Arjama and Varuna. Being pleased with Havyas the sun, the moon, the celestials and Asuras all obtain their desired for fruits. (67) Objects, however impure they may be, are at once purified by the touch of thy rays. Even when bathed with thy ashes one attains to highest purification. For this the Munis adore thee in the evening. (68) Be thou, who art Vahni Sachi, propitiated. Thou art Pavaka Vaidyuta and Prime - be propitiated and save me, O thou the eater of Havya. (69) Like unto a father protecting his own begotten son, do thou, O Vahni, protect us with thy all auspicious form and seven tongues. I do chant thy glories. (70)




Markandeya said: - He having thus chanted his glories, O Muni, the divine Havyavahana, enveloped with his rays, appeared before him. (1) O twice-born one, the lord Vibhavasu was delighted with the above hymn and said to Santi, who was bowing, in words deep as the muttering of clouds. (2) "O Vipra, I have been delighted with the hymn that thou hast reverentially sang; I shall therefore confer upon thee a boon; pray for what thou likest." (5)

Santi said: - O lord, blessed am I, since, I have beheld thee in thy form. Still hear what I communicate unto thee bending low with humility. (4) O god, my preceptor, leaving his own hermitage, has gone to be present at his brother's sacrifice. May he, on his return to the hermitage, behold thee stationed as before. (5) O Vibhavasu, may that twice-born one behold thee as before, stationed here which thou didst leave before for my folly. (6) If thou dost show me another favour, O lord, then let there be an excellent son born unto my preceptor who has no issue. (7) And may my preceptor grow equally mild towards all other creatures as he will be towards his own son. (8) O eternal, as thou hast been pleased with me, O thou conferrer of boons, for my chanting thy glories, may he likewise be propitiated with me. (9)

Markandeya said: - Hearing his words and being again adored with hymns on account of the devotion unto preceptor Pavaka (Fire) said to that foremost of the twice-born. (10)

Agni said: - O Brahmana, thou hast prayed for two boons for thy preceptor and not for thy own self. For this I have been greatly delighted with thee, O great Muni. (11) Therefore what thou hast prayed for thy preceptor shall all be fulfilled. He will be friendly towards all creatures and will have a son. (12) He will be the lord of a Manwantara and be known by the name of Bhoutya; and your preceptor too will be highly powerful, highly energetic and wise.

(13) Whoever, that, being self-controlled, shall chant my glories with his hymn, shall have all his desires fulfilled and piety. (14) This most excellent hymn, conducing to my nourishment, when chanted at the sacrifices at Parvas, at sacred places and Homas, will lead to the acquisition of virtue. (15) One, by listening to this most excellent hymn which is so delightful to me, will have for sooth his sins committed day and night, dissipated. (16) The defects, that originate from the performance of a Homa at an improper season and by an improper person, are immediately removed by merely listening to this. (17) This, when listened to properly, either at Purnima, Amavasya or any other Parva, leads to the destruction of all sins.


Markandeya said: - Having said this the divine Agni, O Muni, disappeared immediately in his own presence, like unto a light put out by the wind. (19) After Vahni had departed Shanti, with a delighted heart and his hairs standing erect in joy, entered the hermitage of his preceptor.

(20) He saw there fire ablaze as before at the very place where it had been kept by his preceptor. Thereat he attained to an excess of delight. (21) In the interval the preceptor returned to his own hermitage from the sacrifice of his high-souled elder brother. (22) His disciple at first touched his feet. Then after accepting seat and adoration the preceptor said to him. (23) "O child, I find in me a growing love towards thee as well as other creatures; I do not understand what is this. Tell me speedily if you know anything of it." (24) Thereupon, O great Muni, that Brahmana Santi related truly everything unto his preceptor beginning with the destruction of the fire. (25) Hearing this, O great Muni, and embracing him, the preceptor, having his eyes bathed with tears of love, delivered unto his disciple all the Vedas with their divisions and sub-divisions. (26) Then there was born to Bhuti a son by name Bhoutya who became a Manu. Hear from me of the gods, Rishis and kings of his Manwantara. (27) I shall describe at length who will be all such in the Manwantara of this would-be Manu, as well as who will be king of gods of illustrious actions. (28) Chakshusha, Kanishtha, Pavitra, Bhrajira and Dharavika - these will be the five classes of gods. (29) Suchi will be the lord of all these gods - highly powerful, highly energetic and endowed with all the accomplishments of a king of gods. (30) Agnidhra Agnivahu, Shuchi, Mukta, Madhava, Shatru and Ajita - these will be the seven Rishis. (31) Guru, Gabhira, Vradhna, Bharata, Anugraha, Strikhani, Pratira, Vishnu, Sankrandana, Tejaswi and Suvala will be the sons of Manu Bhoutya. I have thus described to you the fourteenth Manwantara. (32-33) O foremost of Munis, hearing of these Manwantaras in order a man acquires virtue and endless offspring. (34) Hearing of the first Manwantara a man acquires virtue and hearing of that of Swarochisha he acquires the fulfilment of all his desires. (35) In Auttoma one acquires wealth, in Tamasa knowledge, in Raivata the faculty of understanding Srutis and a beautiful wife. (36) In Chakshusha people acquire freedom from diseases and in Vaivaswata strength, and in Surya Savarniki accomplished sons and grand sons. (37) In Brahma Savarni one acquires glory and in Dharma Savarni auspiciousness. In Rudra Savarniki a man acquires intellect and victory. (38) In Daksha Savarniki one becomes the foremost amongst his kinsmen and is endowed with accomplishments. O foremost of men, hearing of Rouchya, one has all his enemies destroyed. (39) Hearing of Bhoutya Manwantara one acquires the grace of gods, Agnihotra and accomplished sons. (40) O foremost of Munis, hear what an excellent fruit does a man reap when in order he hears of all the Manwantaras. (41) O Vipra, hearing of the gods, Rishis, Indras, Manus and their sons of the respective periods one is released from all the sins. (42) Indras, gods, Rishis, kings and Manus of the various periods become greatly delighted and bestow excellent inclination. (43) Thereupon acquiring good inclination and performing good actions one attains to a better station as long as the fourteen Indras exist. (44) If one hears in order of all the Manwantaras

all the seasons do him good and all the planets, without doubt, become propitious towards him. (45)




KROUSHTI said: - Reverend sir, you have described in detail and order all the Manwantaras and I have heard of them all. (1) O foremost of the twice-born, I wish to hear of the progeny of all the kings beginning with Brahma. Do thou describe them in full. (2)

Markandeya said: - O child, hear of the origin and life of all those kings beginning with Prajapati who is the origin of the universe. (3) This family was adorned with hundreds of pious kings who had performed many sacrifices and been victorious in war. (4) He, who listens to the origin and story of all these high-souled kings, is released from all sins. (5) Hearing of the family in which were born such heroic kings as Manu, Ikshawku, Anaraya, Bhagiratha who were intent on performing sacrifices and conversant with the knowledge of Brahman and who all ruled over this earth a man is freed from all sins. (6-7) Hear of this family from which descended thousands of the families of kings like the branches of a fig-tree. (8) O foremost of the twice-born, in the days of yore, the patriarch Brahma, with a view to create various creatures, procreated from his right thumb the patriarch Daksha and from his left thumb his wife. In this wise, the father of the universe the divine lord Brahma created the great cause of the world. (9-10) The beautiful Aditi was born as the daughter of Daksha. Kashyapa begat on her the divine sun. (11) He is identical with Brahman the conferrer of boons in this endless universe, the beginning, the middle and the end and the ordainer of the creation, preservation and destruction. (12) O twice-born one, from him has emanated this entire universe and in him it is stationed; he is the entire universe with the celestials, Asuras and mankind. (13) He is identical with all the elements with the soul and is the great soul and is eternal. Aditi had prayed for it before and therefore the Divine sun was born in her womb. (14)

KROUSTHl said: - O Reverend Sir, I wish to hear of the true form of the sun and why was he born as the own begotten son of the prime deity Kashyapa. (15) O foremost of Munis, I wish to hear in detail, as narrated by you in detail, how he was worshipped by the goddess Aditi and Kashyapa and what did the sun say on being adored by them as well as of his prowess when incarnated. (16-17)

Markandeya said: - Vishtapa, the great learning, Jyotisbha, Shwashwati, Shphuta, Kaivalya, knowledge, Avibhu, Prakamya, Samrit, Bodha, Avagati, Smriti, discriminative knowledge, these were the forms of the sun who is the form of the universe. (18-19) Hear, O great one, in detail as narrated by me, of the incarnation of the sun of which you have asked. (20) When this universe was shorn of lustre and light and was enveloped in darkness a huge egg which is the great cause came into being. (21) Living inside it the Divine Grand Father Brahma rent it asunder; that lotus-sprung deity is the creator and the lord of the universe. (22) O great Muni, from his mouth came out the great sound Om; then originated therefrom Bhu, Bhavas and Swara. (23) These three words are the true form of the sun; and from Om has come out the great subtle form of the sun. (24) From Om have proceeded in due order the seven forms, gross and grosser, such as Mahas, Janas, Tapas, Satya etc.. (25) These forms appear and disappear simultaneously for undoubtedly the presence and absence of all these are brought about by this. (26) O Vipra, the great subtle form Om, which I have described to you, is the beginning and end of all. That great form has no (material form) that is the real great Brahman and his body. (27)




MARKANDEYA said: - O Muni, when that egg was rent asunder, the Riks first originated from the mouth of the unborn Brahma. (1) They were of the hue of Java flowers and were endowed with energy and form. They were invested with darkness and were separate form each other. (2) From his that mouth that was towards the south came out without any obstruction Yayus - they were of the hue of gold and unconnected with each other. (3) Then from the western mouth of Parameshth Brahma came out the Samans accompanied by their respective metres. (4) Then from the northern mouth of the creator came out the endless

Atharvans that were dark like the black-bees and collyrium. They were divided into Abhicharika and Skantikas, permeated by joy, goodness and ignorance and were of the forms both gentle and otherwise. (5-6) O Muni, Riks were permeated by the quality of darkness, the Samanas by that of ignorance and Atharvanas by both goodness and ignorance. (7) They, all burning in unparalleled effulgence, continued to exist separately as before. (8) Then the effulgence, which emanated from the nature of the prime effulgence that is designated as Om, covering it wholly, existed. (9) O great Muni, the effulgence of Yayush, being united with that of Saman, began to exist in the great effulgence. (10) Thus O Brahman, Shantika, Peshthika and Abhicharika these three ended in Rik, Yayush and Saman. (11) By it as soon as the darkness was dispelled the whole universe became clear and accordingly the down, up and oblique sides were distinctly perceived. (12) Then the best effulgence, of the metres forming a circle, was united with the great effulgence, O Brahman. (13) Because it emanated from Aditya it was called so. O great one, that undecaying energy is the cause of this universe. (14) Rik, Yayush and Saman these three shed effulgence in the morning, noon and afternoon. (15) Riks give it in the morning, Yayush in the noon and Saman in the afternoon, O foremost of Munis. (16) Santika enters into Rik in the morning, Pounchika into Yayush in the noon and Abhicharika into Saman in the afternoon. (17) The ceremonies for the manes should be performed in the noon and morning by the Abhicharika and in the afternoon by Saman. (18) At the time of creation Brahma is identical with Rik, at the time of preservation Vishnu is identical with Yayush and at the time of dissolution Rudra is identical with Saman, and therefore he (Rudra) is considered impure for a sacrifice. (19) Therefore the Divine sun is identical with the Vedas, is the stay of the Vedas and is mentioned as the Great Purusha having the knowledge of the Vedas. (10) Therefore he is the cause of the creation, preservation and destruction and passes under the appellation of Brahma, Vishnu and others by resorting to the qualities of darkness, goodness, etc.,. (21) He has the Vedas as his form, the entire host of mortals for his forms and is without it. He is the Prime and the support of the universe. He is light and comprehended by Vedanta and is the greatest of the great and the gods always chant his glories. (22)




Markandeya said: - When the sky and the earth were heated by the rays of the sun the lotus sprung grandfather, with a desire to create progeny, began to think. (1) "As soon as I will create it everything will be destroyed by the heat of the divine sun, the cause of the creation, preservation and destruction. (2) All the creatures will be deprived of their lives, the water will be dried up by his heat and without water it will be impossible to carry on the creation of the universe." (3) Thinking thus the Divine Brahma, the grandfather of the world, with his mind fixed on him, began to chant the glories of the Divine Sun. (4)

BRAHMA said: - Salutation unto him who is identical with this whole universe, who is identical with all who has the universe for his form, who is the great light which is meditated on by the Yogins; (5) who is identical with Rik, who is the root of Yayush, who is the origin of Saman, who is of inconceivable energy, who, for his grossness, is identical with three, the half matra is whose great form and who is beyond all qualities; (6) who is the cause of all, who is worthy of being eulogised greatly and being known, who is the great light Avanhi in the beginning, who is gross being identical with the gross - I bow unto that greatest of the great, the Sun, the first of all. (7) Urged on by this prime energy I create water, earth, air, fire, gods and various other endless objects beginning with Om; and in due order preserve and destroy them. I can never do so of my own accord. (8) Thou art fire. By thy prowess I dry up the water and create the world and perform the first cooking process of the world. Thou art, O lord, manifest over the universe and identical with Akasa (space). Thou art protecting this universe in fivefold ways. (9) By undertaking sacrifices, persons conversant with great soul, worship thee; thou art Vivaswan - thou art Vishnu - thou art the lord of all and the greatest of the great. Desirous of emancipation and controlling their mind and soul, even the ascetics meditate on thee. (10) Salutation unto thee who art in the form of sacrifice, art the great Brahman and being meditated upon by the Yogins. (11) O lord, I am engaged in creation - this bundle of effulgence has stood in my way - do thou withdraw it. (12)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having been thus eulogised in a most excellent manner by Brahma, the creator of the universe, the Divine Sun withdrew his own great effulgence and held a little. (13) Then the lotus-sprung great Brahma, O great Muni, created, as in the previous Kalpa, the similar gods, Asuras, men, beasts and others, trees, creepers and hells. (14-15)




Markandeya said: - Having created this universe Brahma, as before, made the proper divisions of Varna, Asrama, seas, mountains and islands. (1) And the Divine Lotus sprung Deity made arrangements for the position and form of the gods, demons and Uragas. (2) The son, that was born to Brahma, was known as Marichi - his son was Kashyapa - his son was Kashyapa. (3) The thirteenth daughter of Daksha was his wife. He had many sons amongst the gods, Daityas and Uragas. (4) Aditi gave birth to the gods the lords of the three worlds and Diti to fierce Danavas of dreadful prowess. (5) Virata gave birth to Garuda and Aruna to Yakshas, Rakshasas and various other birds. Kadru gave birth to Nagas and Muni to Gandharvas. (6) Krodha gave birth to the river and Rishtha to Apsaras. O twice-born one, Ira gave birth to Airavata and other elephants. (7) O twice-born one, Tamra gave birth to girls Sweni and others, who (in turn) gave birth to birds such as Swany, Bhasa and Suka. (8) Of Ila were born the trees and of Pradha the birds. By the offspring of Kashyapa who was born of Aditi, by his sons and daughters, grandsons and by their sons and daughters, O Muni, this world was covered. (9-10) Amongst the sons of Kashyapa, the gods were the foremost; they were divided into three classes namely those possessed of the quality of goodness, those of darkness and those of ignorance. (11) The great Patriarch Parameshithi Brahma, the foremost of those conversant with Brahman, made the gods the partakers of sacrificial offerings and the lords of the three worlds. (12) Their step-brothers, the Daityas and Danavas being united together, began to throw obstacles in their way. The Rakshasas too joined them. Accordingly there was waged a highly dreadful war. (13) After a thousand celestial years the gods were defeated and being victorious the Daityas and Danavas grew powerful. (14) Thereupon having beheld her own sons, the gods defeated and ousted from the sovereignty of the three worlds and deprived of the sacrificial offerings by the Daityas and Danavas Aditi, O foremost of Munis, was overwhelmed with grief. She then set forth mighty exertion for worshipping Savitri. (15-16) Then abstaining from food and observing regulation she, with whole mindedness, began to please the Sun, the collection of light stationed in the sky. (17)

Aditi said: - Salutation unto thee who hast assumed a subtle golden form. Thou art energy, the lord of the energetic and the eternal support of energy. (18) Thou art the ordainer of heat, I bow unto thine that form which thou dost assume at the time of drawing it for the benefit of the world. (19) I bow unto thine that dreadful form which thou dost assume for taking in eight months the juice of the moon. (20) O Bhashman, I bow unto thine that most delightful cloud form which thou dost assume at the time of pouring that water. (21) I do also bow unto thine that Bhaskara form which thou dost assume for ripening those plants that spring up from the showers discharged by thee. (22) I do bow unto thine that cold form of dews that thou dost assume for nourishing the corns at that time. (23) I bow again and again, O God, O Ravi, unto that thy gentle form, which is neither very fierce nor very cold which thou dost assume in spring. (24) I bow unto thine that form which is delightful unto the numberless gods and the ancestral manes and is the instrument of the ripening of fruits. (35) I bow unto thy that form which gives life to the creepers, which is identical with Soma and which is the source of ambrosia which is drunk by the gods and ancestral manes. (36) Salutation unto that form identical with Gana, O Arka, which, being united with twofold forms of Agnistoma, has created this universal form. (27) O Bibhavasu, salutation unto that form which has been created by Rik, Yajush and Saman united, which is this universe and which is called Trayi.

(28) Salutation unto that form which is superior to that which is called Om, which is subtle, which has no end, which is eternal and which is not sullied by any shortcoming. (29)

Markandeya said: - O Muni, thus observing vows and abstaining from food, that goddess, for worshipping the sun, began to recite this hymn day and night. (30) O foremost of the twice-born, thus after a long time the Divine Sun came within the view of the daughter of Daksha in the sky. (31) She saw a bundle of light spreading simultaneously over the earth and sky, and

growing fierce to look at for being united with highly effulgent rays. (31) Seeing this the goddess was possessed by great fear. She then said "Be pleased, O Sun I cannot see thee.

(33) Abstaining from food, I at first saw thee in the sky, hard to look at, shedding heat and lustre at the same time. (34) I again behold the same bundle of thy effulgence on the earth. Therefore O Sun, be propitiated; I wish to see thee. Thou dost show compassion towards thy votaries, O lord, I am thy votary - save my sons. (35) Thou art the protector; thou hast created this universe: being engaged in the work of preservation thou dost protect it; the whole universe ends in thee at the time of dissolution. Save thee there is no other refuge unto the creatures. (36) Thou art Brahma, Hari, Mahadeva, Kuvera, Yama, the regent of the Dead and Varuna, the king of water, the air, the moon, the fire, the sky, the mountain and the ocean. Thou art the soul and the form of all. How can I eulogise thee? (37) Thou art the lord of sacrifices. Following their own actions the twice-born every day worship and eulogise thee with various hymns. Controlling their minds and being engaged in Yoga, they, meditating on thee and assuming the form of Yoga, attain to excellent stations. (38) Thou dost heat, ripe, preserve and consume the universe. Thou dost, by spreading and drawing thy rays, display it and benefit it by extending thy rays surcharged with water. The gods and men salute thee. The enemies never obtain thee. (39)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon coming out of the bundle of his rays the Lord Sun appeared before Aditi in the form of burning copper. (1) O Muni, beholding the goddess bending low her head as soon as he came in view, the sun said to her: - "Pray for thy desired for boon whatever thou seekest from me." (2) Kneeling down on earth and bending low her head Aditi said to the Sun, the conferrer of boons who was before her. (3) "O god, be pleased, the Daityas and Danavas growing powerful have deprived my sons of the three worlds and sacrificial offerings. (4) O lord of rays, therefore confer upon me this favour, that descending as their brother in a portion of thy rays do thou destroy their enemies. (5) O Ravi, being pleased with me do thou show them this mercy, O lord, that my sons may again partake of the sacrificial offerings and be lords of the three worlds. Thou dost remove the misery of the afflicted and thou art spoken of as the lord of creation." (6-7) Thereupon, O Vipra, the Divine Bhaskara, the pilferer of water, being prepared to show his favour said to Aditi who had prostrated herself. (8) "O Aditi, being born in thy womb in my endless thousand rays I shall speedily make an end of the enemies of thy sons." (9) Having said this the Divine Bhaskara disappeared. She too, having secured all her wishes, desisted from carrying on her penances. (10) Thereupon, of the thousand rays of the Sun the one called Soushamna took the incarnation of Vipra in the womb of the mother of the gods. (11) She too, being attentive, performed the vows of Krishnachandrayana etc. and being purified held the conception, O twice-born one. (12) Thereupon Kashyapa addressed to her angry words: - "Fasting every day, will you kill this embryo?" (13) She too said to him "O thou wrathful one, I have not killed the embryo that thou dost see - he is for the destruction of the enemies". (14) Saying this, she, wroth at the words of her husband, at once discharged the conception which began to shine in effulgence. (15) Beholding that embryo effulgent as the rising Sun, Kashyapa, bending low, began to hymn its glory with the recitation of the prime Riks. (16) Being thus eulogised by him the Divine Bhashkara, assuming a lotus-hued body, came out of the egg and filled all the quarters with his effulgence. (17) Then were heard divine words deep as the muttering of the clouds surcharged with water from the sky, addressing Kashyapa, the foremost of Munis. (18) "O Muni, since thou didst ask me to kill (Marita) this egg, so my son will be called Martanda. This son will perform, on earth, the functions of the sun and destroy the Asuras who are pilfering the sacrificial offerings". (19-20) Perceiving that the words came out of the sky the gods attained to great delight and the Danavas were dispirited. (21) Thereupon when the performer of a hundred sacrifices invited them to battle the Danavas delightedly confronted the gods. (22) Then there arose a great encounter between the gods and Danavas (in which) all the corners of the world were illumined with the lustre of the arms of both the parties. (23) In that encounter all the leading Asuras, as soon as they were looked upon by the Divine Martanda, were burnt down to ashes. (24) Thereat all the gods attained to great delight and began to hymn both Aditi and Martanda, born of effulgence. (25) After they had been stationed

as before in their positions and entitled to sacrificial offerings the Divine Martanda began to spread his own dominion. (26) Then displaying his lustre like that of Kadamva flowers he began to pour his rays both in the sky and on the earth. He became like a burning bundle of fire and assumed a body of great effulgence. (27)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon propitiating and saluting him the Patriarch Viswakarma conferred on Vivaswan his daughter Sajna. (1) Vivaswan begat on her Manu Vaivaswata. I have already described to you in full his true form etc. (2) The lord of rays begat on her three children - two great sons and the daughter Jamuna, O Muni. (3) Sraddhadeva - the Patriarch Manu Vaivaswata was the eldest - there were born the twins Yama and Yami. (4) The effulgent Martanda, with his growing lustre, greatly distressed the three worlds, mobile and immobile. (5) Beholding the circular form of Vivaswan and unable to bear his rays, Sajna, addressing her own Shadow, said: -(6) "May good betide thee. I am going to my father's house. O auspicious dame, at my command, thou shouldst live near the sun without being agitated. (7) Thou shouldst with care bring up these my two sons and the most beautiful daughter. Thou shouldst never communicate this unto the Divine Sun." (8)

THE SHADOW said: - O goddess, as long as the sun will not take me by the hair or imprecate a curse on me so long I shall not communicate any thing unto him. Go wherever thou wishest." (9) Thus addressed by her Shadow Sajna, repaired to her father's house; and that one, of auspicious eyes, lived there for some time. (10) And thereafter when she was repeatedly requested by her father to go to her husband she assumed the form of a mare and repaired to Uttarakuru. (11) O great Muni, that chaste damsel, abstaining from food, began to carry on devout penances. (12) After she had gone to her father's abode, she, the Shadow, assuming the form of Sajna and intent on carrying on her words, appeared before Bhaskara. (13) Taking her as Sajna the Divine Sun too begat on her two sons and a daughter.

(14) O foremost of the twice-born, the first born of the two, Savarni (by name) was equal to the preceding Manus (in prowess). (15) The second one became the planet Shani; and the daughter was named Tapati whom the king Samvarana espoused. (16) The shadow of Sajna did not show that affection towards the first born children as she did towards her own. (17) Manu forgave her for this but Yama could not do so, and therefore he was repeatedly solicited by his father's wife. (18) Thereupon out of anger, childishness and the force of future incidents Yama raised up his foot, O Muni, to strike her; she too, greatly revengeful, imprecated a curse an Yama. (19)

SAJNA said: - "I am thy father's wife and therefore thy superior; and since thou hast threatened me with that foot, undoubtedly it shall fall off". (20) Having his mind greatly agitated by that curse the high-souled Yama, along with Manu, communicated all unto their sire. (21)

Yama said: - "O lord, our mother does not treat us all equally. Leaving us who are elders she always seeks to rear up the younger ones. (22) I raised up my foot against her but it did not fall on her body. If it be either out of childishness or ignorance it behoves thee to forgive me.

(23) O father, I am her son and still I have been imprecated by the mother. Therefore, O foremost of the ascetics, I do not consider her as our mother. (24) O father, a mother does never become hostile towards the sons even when they become so. Then how can she say to her son, "your leg shall fall off". (25) O lord, O divine sun, do thou think of a measure by which, by thy grace, my foot may not fall off on account of the imprecation of the mother." (26)

THE Sun said: - Since thou, O son, truthful and pious as thou art, didst come by anger, undoubtedly there is some cause of it. (27) There is a remedy for every curse but there is none such for the imprecation of a mother. (28) Therefore I am unable to undo the words of thy mother but I shall show thee some favour out of my fatherly love. (29) Taking flesh from thy foot the worms shall fall down on the earth. By this her words will be verified and thou shalt be saved. (30)

Markandeya said: - Then the Sun said to the shadow of Sajna: - "All the sons are equal, therefore, why dost thou show partiality towards one? (31) How can a mother curse her sons

even when they grow disobedient? Forsooth thou art not their mother - but some body else come to me. (32) To evade (an answer) she did not say anything to the Sun. Then concentrating his own self he saw every thing in its true form. (33) Observing him on the point of uttering a curse, O Brahmana, the shadow of Sajna, trembling, communicated every thing truly to the Sun. (34) Hearing all and getting angry the Sun went to his father-in-law. Then consoling and adoring him who was desirous of consuming all in anger (Vishwakarma) of good vows said: -(35) "The whole universe has been overspread by thy great effulgence. Unable to bear thy form which is so greatly hard to bear Sajna is carrying on devout penances in the forest. (36) Thou shalt behold to-day thy own pious wife carrying on hard penances in the forest for thy form1. (37) I remember the words of Brahma; O god, O lord of the day, if it pleases thee I shall make thy form charming". (38) Formerly the form of the Sun was circular; therefore the Divine Sun said to the (celestial Architect) Tastri "So be it". (39) Having obtained the command and engaged the Sun to travel in the insular continent of Shaka Vishwakarma set himself to chiselling his effulgence. (40) When the Sun, the navel of the endless world, began to roam, the earth, with its seas, mountains and forest, got up to the sky. (41) O Brahmana, along with it the sky, with the moon, planets and stars, came down, O great one, and became greatly agitated . (42) The waters of the oceans became all agitated

- the great mountains were rent asunder and their summits were shattered. (43) The huge clouds, driven hither and thither by the velocity of the sun's motion, moving with great sounds, were all dispersed. (45) O foremost of Munis, agitated by the motion of the sun, the earth, sky, Rasatala and universe were sent out of their places. (46) All the three worlds, O Vipra, thus revolving, the celestial saints and the gods along with Brahma eulogised the Sun:

(47) "Thou art the Prime Deity; this is truly known to the gods. Thou dost exist in thy threefold forms at the time of creation, preservation and destruction. (48) May good betide thee, O lord of the universe. O thou the mine of heat, rains and dews, O god of gods, O maker of the day, do thou bring peace unto mankind." (49) Indra too, coming there, chanted the glories of the revolving Sun: - "Salutation unto the god who is manifest all over the universe. May thou be victorious, O lord of the universe." (50) The seven Rishis too, headed by Vashistha and Atri, saying: "May good betide thee! may good betide thee!!" pleased him with the chanting of various hymns. (51) The Balakhilyas too, filled with delight, pleased the revolving Sun, by reciting the prime and most excellent Riks recorded in the Vedas: (52) "Thou art, O lord, the beatitude of those who have obtained it, thou art the object of the meditation of those who engage in it. Thou art the refuge of all creatures engaged in action. (53) Thou art the lord of the gods, may good betide the creatures through thy mercy; thou art the lord of the universe; mayst thou encompass our happiness, peace and well-being. May good betide us all always who are two-legged as well as all those that are quadrupeds." (54) Thereupon the Vidyadharas, Rakshasas, Yakshas and Pannagas, with folded hands and heads bending low, began to address the Sun with the following words delightful to the mind and the ears: "Thou art the protector of creatures, may they bear thy effulgence." (55-56) Thereupon Hahahuhu, Narada, and Tumvura, versed in Sharaja, Madhyama, Grandhara and the three Talas as well as the other arts of Gandharvas, began to sing delightful tunes with the accompaniment of Murchana, Prayoga and time. (57-58) Vishwachi, Ghritachi, Urvashi, Tilottama, Menaka, Sahajanaya, Rambha and other leading Apsaras, displaying gestures and various other charming gaits, began to dance at the time of the revolving of the sun. (59¬60) At that time hundreds and thousands of flutes, Vinas, Darduras, Panavas, Pushkaras, Mridangas, Patahas, Anakas, celestial bugles and conches were sounded. (61) When the Gandharvas sang, Apsaras danced and cymbals and other musical instruments were struck all was filled with noise. (62) Thereupon with folded hands and with heads bending down with reverence all the deities bowed unto the revolving sun of a thousand rays. (63) When there arose a great tumult on account of the gathering of all the celestials Vishwakarma gradually cut off his effulgence. (64) Thus the Divine Sun is the source of summer, rains, and dews. Hari, Hara, and Brahma too chant his glories. One, by listening to the story of lessening his effulgence, attains to the solar region after his death. (65)

1 The fierceness of the Sun may he lessened and he may assume a milder form.




Markandeya said: - Thereupon while thus chiselling his body Patriarch Vishwakarma, filled with growing delight, chanted the following hymn of the Vivaswat. (1) Salutation unto thee who art the mine of rays, who dost encompass the well-being of and show mercy unto those who bow unto thee, who art the great soul, who hast seven horses all gifted with equal speed, who art of good effulgence and dost give life to the lotuses and who art clever enough to dispel darkness. (2) Thou dost purify others, art of pious deeds, dost confer diverse wished-for objects, art the source of the highly effulgent fire, art rays and art the benefactor unto all. I bow unto thee. (3) Thou hast no birth, art the cause of the three worlds, art identical with all the elements, the lord of the universe and righteousness1, the foremost of the merciful and the sun who gives vision unto all; I bow unto thee. (4) Thou art the source of rays and the innermost soul of the learned; in thee the world is stationed and thou art the benefactor of the universe, art self-sprung, the vision of all and the foremost of the gods. Thou hast incomparable effulgence, I bow unto thee. (5) Thou dost adorn, for a moment, the hill whence thou risest like a garland of gems and encompass the well-being of the world along with the celestials. The thousand rays are thy body; to dispel darkness thou dost spread them over the universe. (6) Drinking the wine of worldly darkness and under its influence thy body becomes red; from that arise thy rays that display the three worlds and accordingly dost thou appear in great effulgence. (7) O lord, ascending thine highly beautiful chariot of equal proportions moving mildly, thou dost, through the help of numberless horses, always wander about unobstructed for encompassing the well-being of the world. (8) By bestowing simultaneously ambrosia and the rays of the moon thou dost bring about the gratification of the gods and manes and the destruction of the enemies. Therefore do I, saluting thee, chisel thine effulgence for the benefit of the world. (9) O thou fond of thy votaries, O thou the purifier of the three worlds, O Ravi, do thou save me, who have touched with my head the earth, purified with the dust of thy feet and trampled down by golden-hued horses. (10) Thou art like the mother of the universe and the highly sacred abode of the three worlds. Thou art the lamp of the entire universe and what more, thou art Vishwakarma; I bow unto thee. (11)




Markandeya said: - Having thus chanted the glories of the sun Vishwakarma put the sixteenth part of the effulgence of the creator of the day into his circular disc. (1) Fifteen portions of his rays being chiselled out of his body the sun assumed a highly charming form.

(2) With the effulgence that was chiselled out of his body he made the discus of Vishnu, the mace of Siva, the vehicle of the god of riches, the rod of the Regent of the dead and Sakti of (Kartikeya) the commander of the celestial army. (3) With the rays of the sun Vishwakarma made many other shining weapons for other gods for the pacification of their enemies. (4) With his effulgence thus chiselled as soon as the Divine sun appeared with not very warm rays his body became exceedingly charming. (5) Then concentrating his mind he saw his own wife carrying on penances and observing regulation in the shape of a mare never thought of by any creature. (6) Thereupon repairing to Uttarakuru and assuming the form of a horse the sun approached her. Beholding him thus approach and taking him for a stranger she turned her face towards him. Thereupon they touched each other's nose . (7-8) The energy of the sun entered into the mare through her nostril and therefrom originated the two gods Açwinis, the foremost of the physicians. (9) They both came out of the mouth of the horse and are the sons of Martanda assuming the form of a horse. (10) From the seminal fluid came out Revanta who had in his hands dagger, bow, arrow and quiver and a coat of mail on his body and was seated on horseback. (11) Then the sun displayed his own improved form; and seeing his mild form she attained to great delight. (12) Thereupon the sun, the pilferer of water, took to his own house his loving wife Sajna who had assumed her own form. (13) Then his first son became Manu Vaivaswata and the second Yama, on account of the imprecation and favour, followed only righteousness. (14) Having his mind greatly assailed by the curse Yama liked only virtue and therefore he was called Dharmaraja or the king of virtue. (15) His father

1 The word in the text is Vrisha i.e. bull. In Puranas a bull with four legs is the emblem of righteousness.

brought about an end of his imprecation by saying "Taking the flesh of thy feet the worms shall fall down on earth". (16) Since he had always his eye on righteousness and was impartial both towards friends and foes, the dispeller of darkness appointed him as the Regent of the dead. (17) O Vipra, being propitiated with him the Divine Sun conferred on him the dignity of a Patriarch and the sovereignty over the ancestral manes. (18) Thereupon he converted Yamuna into a tributary of Kalindi and the two Açwinis were appointed by their high-souled sire as the physicians of the celestials. (19) Revanta was appointed as the king of Guhyakas. Then the Divine Sun, worshipped of all the worlds, said to him. "O child, do thou become adorable by all the worlds. (20) Those mortals, who shall, in fear of the forest fire, enemies and robbers, remember thee, will be freed from all those great dangers. (21) Adored by them and delighted accordingly thou shalt confer on mankind peace, intellect, happiness, kingdom, recovery from diseases and advancement. (22) The highly illustrious Savarni too, the son of the imitation Sajna, shall also become the eighth Manu by name Savarni at some future period. (23) That lord Savarni, still now, is carrying on hard penances on the summit of the mount Meru. His brother, Sani, at the command of the sun, has become a planet. (24) O foremost of the twice-born, the youngest daughter, that was begotten by Aditya, has become the foremost of rivers Yamuna purifying the world. (25) I shall now relate in full the account of Manu Vaivaswata, who is high-souled and the eldest of all and whose reign is now going on.

(26) He, who listens to or reads the birth and glorious account of the gods, Vaivaswata Manu, his sons and the divine sun, is released from the impending danger and attains to great fame. Hearing of the glorious account of the Prime Deity the high-souled Martanda one has all his sins committed day and night destroyed. (27-28)




Kroushthi said: - O Reverend Sir, you have related in full, the birth of the children of the Sun, the Prime Deity, his glory and his true form. (1) O foremost of Munis, I wish to hear again fully of the glories of the Prime Deity Bhaskara; do thou delightedly describe them. (2)

Markandeya said: - Hear, I shall recount the glories of the Prime Deity Vivaswan and what he did do in the days of yore when he was adored by people. (3) The illustrious Rajyavarddhana, the son of Dama, became the king; that lord of the earth, governed her well. (4) That kingdom being righteously governed by that high-souled one, it grew, O Vipra, daily in men and riches.

(5) During his administration both the citizens and villagers became hale and hearty and equally rich like the king. (6) There was no impediment, no disease and no fear from dangerous animals; (what more) even there was no fear from the scarcity of water when Dama's son became the king. (7) He undertook great sacrifices and gave away presents to those who sought for them; and without interfering with real virtue, he engaged in the enjoyment of worldly objects. (8) Thus governing his kingdom and ruling well his subjects, seven thousand years passed away like a day. (9) The respectful daughter of Viduratha, the king of Deccan, by name Manini, became his wife. (10) Once on a time that one, of fair eye¬brows, Manini, while engaged in picking up the grey hairs of the king, began to shed tears in the presence of all the assembled kings. (11) When those drops of tears fell on the body of the king he saw her face bathed in tears and asked her. (12) Beholding her weeping and shedding tears in silence Rajyavarddhana said to Manini "What is this?". (13) Although thus accosted by her husband that great lady did not say anything; thereat the king asked her again. (14) Thereupon repeatedly asked by the king the youthful (queen) showed to the king a grey hair growing in the midst of the tuft of hairs. (15) (She said) "Behold this, O king; what is this? This is the cause of my grief, unfortunate as I am." Thereat the king laughed. (16) Smiling he said to his wife in the presence of all the kings and citizens who had assembled there. (17) "O thou of expansive eyes, no more with sorrow; O auspicious dame, do not weep; all creatures are subject to birth, development and decay. (18) O fair damsel, I have studied all the Vedas, I have performed a thousand sacrifices, I have made gifts unto the twice-born and procreated progeny. (19) I have with you enjoyed many objects of enjoyment which are dear to the mortals. I have governed well the earth and fought many fair battles. (20) I have enjoyed much in the forest and elsewhere in the company of chosen friends. What is there, O auspicious dame, which I have not done? Wherefore art thou afraid of my decaying hairs? (21) Let my

hairs grow grey, my skin folded and my body slackened - I achieved all my objects O Manini.

(22) Repairing to the forest I shall treat all those grey hairs which thou hast seen on my head, O auspicious damsel. (23) O fair one, my fore-fathers behaved like infants in their infancy, like boys in their boyhood, like young men in their youth and in the old age they entered into the woods. I shall also act like them. Therefore do I see no reason for thy shedding tears. (23-25) Do not grieve therefore. The grey hair, that thou hast seen, is the instrument of my prosperity; therefore do not weep. (26)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon, O great saint, all the assembled kings and citizens, who had come here, saluting him, said to Rajyavarddhana. (27) ''O king, there is no reason for thy wife, to weep, but ourselves and all the creatures shall have to weep. (28) O lord, hearing thy words of repairing to woods, the minds of us all, O king, who have been maintained by you, have become dejected. (29) Therefore, O king, we shall all go to the forest if you go there. Thyself repairing to the forest, O lord, the works of all the inhabitants of the world shall undoubtedly be stopped. If this leads to the obstruction of virtue do thou give up this idea. (30-31) Thou hast ruled this earth for seven thousand years. Observe therefore, O king, the virtue, that has arisen therefrom. (32) The devout penance, O king, that thou shalt carry on by living in the forest, is not equal to the sixteenth part of thy governing the world. (33)

THE KING said: - I have governed this earth for seven thousand years, - now the time for repairing to woods has arrived. (34) I have begotten children and have seen them begetting such. I have seen all this within a short time. So death shall not see it any longer. (35) The grey hairs you see on my head, O citizens, consider them as the emissary of the non-aryan Death of greatly fierce temper. (36) Therefore, placing my son on the throne and abstaining from all objects of enjoyment I shall repair to woods and shall carry on devout penances so long the soldiers of Yama do not come. (37)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon desirous of repairing to woods that great king enquired of the astrologers about the proper day and time for the installation of his son. (38) Hearing the king's words their minds were agitated and so they, although conversant with Shastras, could not find out the proper day and hour. (39) The astrologers said to the king in suppressed accents - "O king, hearing your words, all our knowledge has been destroyed". (40) Thereupon from other cities, dependant states and from that city came many leading Brahmanas and approaching that king, O Muni, who was bent upon repairing to woods and bending low their heads, said: - (41-42) "Be pleased, O king, and govern us all as before. O king, thyself repairing to woods all the worlds will go to ruin. (43) Therefore, O king, do thou so act that the world may not go to ruin. O heroe, O lord, as long as we shall live, we shall not like, even for a moment, to see this throne without you. (44)

Markandeya said: - Although these Brahmanas, other twice-born ones, the citizens, the kings, Servants, councillors, and others said this repeatedly yet he did not give up his resolution of repairing to woods; on the other hand, he said "death will not let me alone". (45¬46) Thereupon the councillors, the servants, elderly citizens and the twice-born ones, assembling together, began to consult what they should do. (47) They were all attached to the highly victorious king, O Vipra, and therefore after consultation arrived at the conclusion. (48) "Concentrating our minds and controlling ourselves we shall, with penances, worship the divine Sun for a longer lease of life for this king." (49) When they had all arrived at this determination some, in their own houses, engaged in worshipping the sun by duly offering him Arghya and other articles. (50) Some with the silent recitation of Riks and others with Yayus and Saman pleased the sun. (51) Some Brahmanas, abstaining from food, lying down on the bank of a river and carrying on devout penances, worshipped the sun. (52) Others, engaged in the performance of Agnihotra, recited day and night Ravisukta whereas others remained with their eyes fixed on the sun. (53) Thus resorting to their respective modes, they all, in various ways, made up their minds for worshipping the sun. (54) When they all thus perseveringly carried on the worship of the Sun a Gandharva, by name Sudama, coming, there said: -(55) "O ye Vipras, if ye are determined upon worshipping the sun do ye so act as may please him. (56) On the huge mountain in Kamrupa there is a forest called Vishala resorted to by Siddhas. Do ye all speedily go there. (57) And with controlled minds do ye

worship the sun there where every one gets Siddhi and auspiciousness and attains all his wished for objects. (58)

Markandeya said: - Hearing his words and repairing to that forest the twice-born ones saw the holy and auspicious form of the sun. (59) There abstemious of food and diligent all the Brahmanas and other castes began to worship him with incense, flowers and other presents.

(60) Worshipping him with flowers, sandal pastes, incense, scents and other things, recitations, Homa, food, lamp, etc., the twice-born ones, O Brahmana, with controlled minds, there eulogised the sun. (61)

The Brahmanas said: - We seek refuge with the God Ravi who excels in effulgence the gods, Danavas, Yakshas, planets and luminous bodies. (62) He who is the lord of the gods, who stationed in the sky lights up all the quarters, who fills the sky and earth, with his rays; (63) who is Aditya, Bhaskara, Savita and the maker of the day; who is Pusha, Aryama, Bhanu, Sharvanu and the source of light; (64) who is the fire of dissolution at the end of four yugas, who goes even to the end of dissolution and is hard to look at, who is the lord of yoga, endless, red, yellow, blue, and dark-blue. (65) He is stationed in the Agnihotra of the Rishis in all the sacrifices and in gods and is the great word, mystic and the most excellent door of emancipation. (66) He wanders in the sky on horses in the shape of metres, and always rises and sets after circumambulating the mount Meru. (67) He is ambrosia, truth, all the sacred shrines, the support of the universe and is beyond comprehension; we seek refuge with that sun. (68) He is Brahma, Siva, Vishnu, Prajapati; he is air, ether, water, and the earth, with mountains and oceans. (69) He is planet, star, the moon, and others, is the plant, trees, and creepers, and is the ordainer of virtue and vice in both, what is manifest or not. (70) He has three-fold forms of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva; may that sun be propitiated with us. (71) He is the lord of the universe and is without birth; his limb is this universe and he is the life of the world; may he be propitiated with us. (72) May that sun be propitiated with us whose Bhaskara form, enveloped with rays, is hard to look at and whose form is the gentle moon. (73) May that Divine Sun be propitiated with us with whose these two forms the world has been created and filled with fire. (74)

MARKANDEYA said: - O foremost of the twice-born, having been thus eulogised by them with reverence and worshipped for three months the Divine Sun was pleased. (75) Thereupon although hard to work at, he, assuming the effulgence of the rising sun, came down from his disc and appeared before them. (70) Thereat trembling in joy and bending low with reverence all the people there bowed unto the unborn sun, who came there in his clean form. (77)

(They said): "Salutation unto thee, O thou of thousand rays, thou art the cause of all and the guide. Thou art worthy of being eulogised and worshipped by all. Do thou protect us all. Thou art the refuge of all sacrifices; the Yogins meditate on thee; be thou propitiated with us." (78)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon delighted the Divine Sun said to all the people "O ye twice-born ones and others, tell me what do ye seek from me". (1) Beholding the Sun stationed before them all the Brahmanas and others, saluting him with reverence, said to that lord of the universe. (2)

THE SUBJECTS said: - O Lord, O thou the dispeller of darkness, if thou art pleased with our devotion may our king live for ten thousand years. (3) May he be always freed from diseases, may he defeat his enemies, may his treasury remain always full, and may he be ever youthful. May Rajyavarddhana live for ten thousand years. (4)

MARKANDEYA said: - O great Muni, having said 'so be it' the sun assumed his own form. They too, having attained their boons, and been delighted, approached that king of men. (5) O twice-born one, they communicated every thing fully unto the king how they had obtained the boon from the sun. (6) O twice-born one, hearing this his wife Manini was delighted. But the king thought for some time and did not say any thing to the people. (7) Therefore Manini, having her heart filled with delight, said to her husband "O king, by luck, you have got a longer lease of life". (8) O twice-born one, although her husband was thus congratulated by

Manini in delight the king did not say any thing and his mind was stupefied by pensiveness.

(9) He began to think with his head cast downwards. She again said to her husband "O king, why art thou not pleased with the accession of such a good fortune? (10) From to-day thou shalt live a healthy and youthful life for ten thousand years, why art thou not pleased then?

(11) O king, tell me the cause of the anxiety that has possessed thy heart even at the advent of such a good fortune". (12)

The KING said: - O auspicious damsel, what is that good fortune to me? Why art thou congratulating me? A thousand miseries have come for me? Why do you please me? (13) I shall alone live for ten thousand years. Thou shalt meet with death. Will not that cause grief unto me? (14) Beholding my sons, grandsons, their sons and other relations passing away before me shall I experience a small grief? (15) When servants, greatly attached to me, as well as the friends shall pass away, there shall be no end of grief unto me? (16) Even they, who by carrying on penances have reduced their bodies to skeletons for me, will meet with death. Shall I alone live and enjoy? O fie on me. (17) Therefore, O fair one, this is no prosperity to me but a great calamity. Why do you not consider this? And why do you congratulate me? (18)

MANINI said: - Undoubtedly what thou hast said, O great king, is true. In our joy, neither myself nor the citizens could observe this defect. (19) Therefore, think, O king, what should now be done. What the Divine Sun has said in propitiation shall never be otherwise. (20)

THE KING said: - Without repaying the benefit which has been done me by citizens and servants delightedly how shall I enjoy various objects of enjoyment? (21) I too to-day shall go to the mountain and with controlled mind and abstaining from food shall worship the sun and carry on penances. (22) As I shall, by his favour, live for ten thousand years, being youthful and freed from diseases, likewise if my subjects, servants, sons, grandsons, their sons, friends and others live by the favour of the sun, then with delight I shall be their king and enjoy the objects of enjoyment. (23-25) If the sun does not encompass this, O Manini, I shall, abstaining from food, carry on, in this mountain, devout penances so long my life does not run out. (26)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having been thus addressed by him she said 'so be it' to the king and with him repaired to that mountain. (27) Having reached that valley, O twice-born one, the king, engaged in his service along with his wife, began to worship the sun. (28) The king grew lean with fasting and so did she. Bearing cold and heat she carried on hard austerities. (29) He thus worshipping the sun and carrying on hard penances for a little over a year the sun was delighted. (30) O foremost of the twice-born ones, he then conferred the boon, as desired by the king, with regard to all his servants, citizens and sons. (31) Having obtained the boon and returned to his own city the king delightedly governed his kingdom and piously ruled his subjects. (32) He performed many Yajnas and made charities day and night. And that one conversant with virtue enjoyed many objects of desire in the company of Manini. (33) He lived a youthful and happy life for ten thousand years along with the servants, sons, and grandsons. (34) Seeing his life, Pramati, of Bhrigus' race, filled with surprise, composed the following theme. (35) "O what is the power of devotion to the sun, since Rajyavarddhana has gained a long life both for himself and his own men." (36) O Vipra, as asked by you I have thus recounted to you the glories of the Prime Deity, the effulgent Aditya. (37) By listening to or reading in full this most excellent glorious theme the Brahmanas are released from sins committed for seven nights so also are other men. (38) The intelligent man, who meditates on this theme, becomes freed from diseases, rich, prosperous, is born in the family of the intelligent and becomes highly wise. (39) O foremost of Munis, those, who are unfortunate and beset with calamities, if they recite this theme of the Sun, three times a day, are freed from sins. (40) The sun lives always near the house, where this his glorious theme is chanted and he never leaves it. (41) Therefore, O Brahman, you should, desirous of acquiring great piety, meditate over and chant this glorious theme of the sun. (42) O foremost of the twice-born, by listening for three days to this glorious theme of the sun one reaps the same fruit which he does by making a gift of a beautiful milch cow having golden horns. (43)




Markandeya said: - O Krausthika, the eternal Divine Sun, about whose glories you did reverentially accost me, is thus gifted with rays. (1) He is the Paramatman (great soul) of all those Yogins who have concentrated their minds in Yoga. He is Kshetrajna of the Sankhya philosophers and the lord of sacrifices of those who perform them. (2) The Manu of the seventh Manwantara took his birth as his son. He had all his doubts dissipated. Ikshwaku, Nabhaga, Rishtha, Narishyanta, Nabhaga, Prishadra and Dhrista were his sons. They were all very highly powerful, of illustrious renown, were well read in scriptures and became the rulers of the earth. (3-5) With a view to have a more accomplished son, that Manu, the foremost of successful men, again undertook the performance of a sacrifice in honour of Mitra and Varuna. (6) O great Muni, on account of the bad conduct of Hota in that sacrifice Manu got a highly youthful daughter by name Ila. (7) Thereupon beholding that daughter born Manu, pleasing Mitra and Varuna, said: -(8) "Expecting that a most accomplished son would be born to me by your favour, I undertook this sacrifice - but a daughter is born. (9) If you are pleased with me and are ready to grant a boon may this daughter, by your favour, become a highly accomplished son". (10) The gods having said, 'so be it' that daughter Ila immediately became a son known by the name of Sudyumna. (11) While going about a-hunting in the forest that highly intelligent son of Manu, again by the curse of the Providence, assumed her female form. (12) There she gave birth to a son by name Pururava who became in time Lord Paramount. (13) After the birth of the son he performed a great horse-sacrifice. Sudyumna then regained his manhood and became the king. (14) Sudyumna, in his manhood, begat three sons, Utkala, Vinaya and Gaya - they were all very powerful and energetic and were intent upon performing sacrifices. (15) All his sons, born in his manhood, had their minds devoted to virtue and governed this earth. (16) Pururava was born in his womanhood. He did not obtain a portion of the earth since he was the son of Budha. (17) According to the words of Vashistha, a best of cities, Pratishthana, was conferred upon him. He became king in that highly charming city. (18)




Markandeya said: - Manu's son, Prishadhra, by name, went out a-hunting into the forest. Going about there in that lonely wood he did not find any deer. He was assailed by the rays of the sun and was possessed by hunger and thirst while moving about hither and thither. (1-2) There he saw a highly beautiful sacrificial cow belonging to an Agnihotra Brahmana. (3) Taking it for a Gavaya he discharged a shaft at her. Having her heart pierced by the arrow she fell down on earth. (4) Beholding the sacrificial cow of his father thus fallen the Brahmachari son of that Agnihotri, ever engaged in Tapas, imprecated a curse on him. (5) His name was Babhraya and was sent by his father to look after the kine. O Muni, he was by nature angry and wrathful. So he was worked up with anger; he began to perspire and her eyes were agitated. (6) Beholding the Muni's son angry the king Prishadra said "Be pleased; why are you being possessed by anger like a Sudra? (7) Such an anger can never possess a Kshatrya or a Vaisya even, as has possessed you who are born in an eminent Brahmana's family." (8) Being thus remonstrated with by the king that Rishi's son imprecated a curse on that vicious-souled one, saying "Be a Sudra. (9) Since thou hast killed the sacrificial cow of my preceptor, the Vedas shall not come out (of thy mouth) which thou didst learn from thy preceptor." (10) Being thus imprecated and possessed by anger the king took water in his hand to curse him. (11) That foremost of the twice-born became angry for the destruction of the king. But approaching him speedily his father prevented him, (12) saying "O child, away with anger which is the great enemy of advancement. Forgiveness only encompasses the well-being of the twice-born both in this world and the next. (13) Anger destroys asceticism and longevity. An angry man loses knowledge and riches. (14) The angry do not acquire virtue nor riches. Persons, who have their minds possessed by anger, do not attain objects leading to happiness. Even if knowing it full well the king has killed the sacrificial cow still, (actuated by) good sense you should show forgiveness towards him. (16) And if unconsciously he has killed this cow how does he then deserve an imprecation since he is not wickedly bent. (17) A person, who seeks his own good and at the same kills others, has his good sense destroyed.

Such a man is an object of commiseration. (18) If the learned punish an innocent man, me-thinks the illiterate are superior to such learned men. (19) Therefore, O my son, you should not have cursed the king to-day. By her own Karma this cow has met with a painful death."

(20) Than saluting the Muni's son with his head down Prishadra said: - "Be pleased, I have unknowingly killed her. (21) O Muni, taking her for a Gavaya I have, out of ignorance, killed your sacrificial cow." (22)

The Rishi's son said: - O king, I have never spoken an untruth since my birth. O great one, to-day my anger shall never be otherwise. (23) Therefore, O king, I shall not be able to undo this curse. But I refrain from imprecating the second curse which I was about to do." (23) On his saying this the father taking his son with him repaired to his own hermitage. Prishadhra too became a Sudra. (35)




Markandeya said: - Karusha had seven sons who were all called Karushas; they were heroic and brave, from them sprang seven hundred heroes and thousands of others. (1) Nabhaga was Dishthi's son. When he set his foot on his first youth he saw a highly beautiful daughter of a Vaisya. (2) As soon as he saw her his mind was agitated by desire. The prince then began to sigh. (3) He, then approaching the father of the girl, prayed for her. The father then, with folded hands, said to the prince whose mind was possessed by desire and whose father he used to fear, words, bending low with humility: - (4-5) "You are kings, we are your servants and ryots. Why do you wish to have an alliance with us?" (6)

The prince said: - The equality of human bodies is rendered by desires, stupefaction etc. The human body is united with them in time. (7) They also lend to their benefaction. The pious, though they belong to different castes, depend on each other. (8) By the influence of time even the unworthy objects become worthy and worthy objects become unworthy - the worthiness is thus dependant on time. (9) The body is nourished by desirable edibles - thus it is nourished when food is taken in proper time. (10) Thus I have come to like your girl. Do you confer her on me or else my body will be destroyed. (11)

The Vaishya said: - Both of us are equally dependants; obtaining the permission of your father the king, do you take her and I shall give her away. (12)

The Prince said: - True, at all times, the people should obtain the permission of their elders; but in such unworthy actions the elders should not be consulted. (13) The talking of love affairs and the hearing of the elders are opposed to each other; the elders should be consulted by men in other matters. (14)

Vaishya said: - Of course, this will be a conversation of love for you to ask your father. I shall ask him, this is no love affair to me. (15)

Markandeya said: - Having been thus addressed the prince remained silent. He (the Vaishya) then communicated every thing duly unto the prince's father. (16) Thereupon having sent for leading twice-born ones, the Richikas and others, as well as the prince he said every thing of what had been communicated (by the Vaisya). (17)

Thereupon communicating all he said: "I have been placed in this condition, tell me, O ye leading twice-born ones, what should be done in this." (18)

The Rishi said: - O prince, if you have cherished attachment for this Vaisya girl it will be considered as morality; but this must be observed duly. (19) You must first espouse the daughter of the king Murdhabhishikta and then you must marry her. (20) If you enjoy her in this way there will be no sin, but if you carry her away stealthily you will be degraded from your most eminent caste. (21)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having been thus addressed and disregarding the words of those high-souled ones, coming out therefrom, taking her away and uplifting his weapons he said: ¬

(22) "I have taken the Vaisya girl under the Rakshasa form of marriage; whoever has the power let him come and release her." (23) Thereupon beholding his daughter thus carried

away, the Vaisya, O twice-born one, speedily sought refuge with his father, saying "Save me". (24) Thereupon being worked up with anger the king ordered his huge army saying, "kill, kill this wicked and sinful Nabhaga." (25) Then the soldiers began to fight with the prince. By him too, who was an expert in the use of arms, many of them were killed. (26) Hearing of the destruction of the army by the prince, the king, encircled by his own soldiers, himself went out to fight with him. (27) Then there arose a great encounter between the king and his own son. The father was excelled by the prince in the use of arms. (28) Thereupon all on a sudden coming from the sky the ascetic Paribrata said to the king "Desist from the fight. (29) O great one, your son, high-souled as you are, has lost his caste. O king, it is not proper for you to fight with a Vaisya. (30) A Brahmana does not lose his caste, if after marrying first in the house of Brahmana, he takes wives from other castes. (31) Similarly O king, a Kshatriya does not lose his caste, if after first taking the hand of a Kshatriya girl he marries other caste girls.

(32) So a Vaisya is not excluded from his caste if he marries a Sudra girl after first taking a Vaisya wife. This is the due order. (33) O king, the Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas lose their caste if they marry the girls of other castes before taking wives from their respective orders. (34) If persons, before taking wives from their own castes, marry in inferior races, they cannot enjoy their objects there. (35) This your sinful son has become a Vaisya. But you are a Kshatriya. He has no right to fight with you. O king, we do not know the cause which may sanction such an encounter; therefore desist from fight". (36)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon the king desisted from fighting with his own son. His son too espoused the daughter of the Vaisya. (1) Thereupon attaining Vaisyahood and approaching the king, he said "O king, order me, what am I to do". (2)

The king said: - The ascetics Babhravya and others are engaged in looking after the morals; let them say what you should do and act accordingly." (3) Thereupon the ascetics and courtiers all said, "His duty is to look after cattle, agriculture and trade". (4) The prince had deviated from his own order and so he acted according to what had been suggested by the pious sages. (5) He begat a son, known by the name of Bhanandana. His mother said to him "go, O my child, and be a protector of the world". (16) Having been thus ordered by his mother and saluted her he approached the royal saint Neepa who was living on the Himalaya mountain. (7) Approaching him and saluting his feet duly, Bhanandana said to that royal saint.

(8) "O reverend sir, my mother has ordered me to be a protector of the earth. So I must protect the earth; but how can I obtain her permission? (9) I can rule over the subjects if she agrees. But my earth has been invaded by my powerful kinsmen. (10) I am thy servant. Do thou so order, O lord, that I may, by thy favour, obtain the earth; I shalt carry out thy order".


Markandeya said: - Thereupon, O Brahman, the royal saint Neepa conferred upon the high-souled Bhanandana all the arms. (12) Having obtained the knowledge of arms and being ordered by that high-souled one he went to his cousins Vasurat and others. (13) He then wanted the half of his ancestral kingdom. They said, "you are a son of a Vaisya, how can you enjoy the earth?" (14) Then Bhanandana began to fight with Vasurat and others born in his own family who in anger began to make a downpour of weapons. (15) Having wounded all their soldiers with weapons and vanquished them all in fair fight that one, conversant with virtue, took the earth from them. (16) Having defeated all his enemies he dedicated the entire earth and kingdom to his father, but he did not accept it. He then said to his son in the presence of his wife. (17)

NABHAGA said: - O Bhanandana, this kingdom was created by your fore-fathers. This belongs to you. I did not make this kingdom. This was not owing to my inability. (18) I have attained to Vaisyahood and did not carry out the order of my father. Having displeased my father I married the daughter of a Vaisya. (19) A king is not entitled to the enjoyment of sacred regions till the time of dissolution. (20) And then again disregarding the order of my father if I govern the earth I shall not attain emancipation even in a hundred Kalpas. (21) I am a respectable person; it does not behove me to enjoy a kingdom earned by your arms; (then again) I am weak. (22) Therefore do you yourself govern the kingdom or give it over to your

kinsmen. I am your father; it is not so much becoming for you to govern the earth as it is for you to carry out my order. (23)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon his graceful wife Suprabha laughing said to her husband: - "O king, accept this prosperous kingdom. (24) You are not a Vaisya nor am I born in a Vaisya family, O king. You are a Kshatriya and I am also born in a Kshatriya race. (25) In the days of yore there flourished a king by name Sudeva. Dumrashya's son Nala was his friend. (26) In the month of Madhu, O king, he, along with his friend and wives, went to a forest of mangoes on a pleasure trip. (27) There accompanied by his friend and wives he enjoyed diverse drinks and edibles. (28) Thereupon on the bank of the tank he saw the highly beautiful royal wife of Pramati, the son of Chyavana. (29) His vicious-minded friend Nala, under the influence of drink, caught hold of her, who was crying out 'Save me, save me' in the very presence of the king. (30) Hearing her cries her husband Pramati came there speedily saying "What is this"?

(31) There he saw the king Sudeva and his wife in the grasp of the vicious-minded Nala. (32)

Thereat Pramati said to Sudeva: - "Desist him. Thou art the governor and king. O king, (in your presence) this Nala has committed such a violence." (33) Hearing his distressful words and on account of his great love for Nala, Sudeva said to him: - "I am a Vaisya: seek refuge with a Kshatriya for her safety." (34) Thereupon when the king said that he was a Vaisya, Pramati, worked up with anger and as if burning all with his energy, said to him: -(35) "True it is, that you are a Vaisya. He, who saves one from injury, is a Kshatriya. They take up their arms lest any one sets out a doleful cry. You are not a Kshatriya but the wretch of a Kshatriya". (36)




Markandeya said: - O twice-born one, thereupon having imprecated that curse on him and as if burning down the three worlds in anger, Pramati, of Bhrigu's race, said to Nala: -(1) "Since you, in my own hermitage, have shown violence to my wife under the influence of desire, you will be consumed at once". (2) As soon as those words were uttered he was immediately reduced to ashes by the fire originating from his own body. (3) Beholding his prowess Sudeva, divested of haughtiness and saluting him said: - "Forgive me, forgive me. (4) O reverend Sir, I was under the influence of liquor. Therefore forgive me, be pleased and withdraw your curse". (5) Having been thus pleased by him and on Nala being consumed, Pramati, of Bhrigu's race, said with a dried heart. (6) "The words, that have been given vent to by me, shall never falsified. Still being propitiated with you I will show you some excellent favour. (7) You will be born in the race of the Vaisyas, there is no doubt about that. But immediately, in this very birth you will be a Kshatriya. (8) When a Kshatriya will take away your daughter by force you will become a Kshatriya". (9) In this way, O king, my father Sudeva became a Vaisya. What I am, O great one, hear all in detail. (10) There was a royal saint by name, Suratha in the mount Gandhamadana. Repairing to the forest, abstaining from food and forsaking all attachment he became an ascetic. (11) Thereupon as soon as he saw there a Sarika dropped from the beaks of a Swena his mind was possessed by mercy; and immediately stupefaction came over him. (12) When he came to his senses I sprang from his body. Beholding me he took me up with an affectionate heart. (13) The lord said, "Since this daughter is born when my mind is possessed by mercy she will be called Kripavati." (14) Then I daily drew up in his hermitage and began to wander about in the forest with my mates of equal age. (15) Agastya's brother was equally well-known like his brother. When he came to the forest for gathering the produces thereof his anger was excited by my female companions and he imprecated a curse. (16) 'Since you have called me a Vaishya, you will be born as the daughter of a Vaishya. I give you this curse.' After he had said this I said: (17) "O foremost of the twice-born, I have committed no offence by thee, why dost thou curse me for another's offence?" (18)

The ascetic said: - Even a good man becomes wicked when he associates with them. Even good things, made of milk, are spoiled with a single drop of wine. (19) Still as you are innocent and have pleased me with salutation, hear, O girl, what favour I shall extend to you: (20) "When after being born in the race of a Vaisya you will despatch your son for governing the

kingdom, you will come to recollect your pristine birth. (21) Then again attaining to Kshatriyahood along with your husband you will enjoy many heavenly objects. Go, you have no fear." (22) O king, I was thus formerly cursed by that great saint. My father was also thus cursed by Pramati. (23) Therefore, O king, you are not a Vaisya nor is my father. So neither yourself nor I am fallen. Why will you be then fallen (in my company)? (24)




Markandeya said: - Hearing the words of his wife and son that pious king again said to them.

(1) "I shall never accept the kingdom that I relinquished at the behest of my father. What is the use of speaking in vain? Why do you attract my mind. (2) I have taken to this Vaisya mode of life. I shall pay you the revenue. Do you enjoy this kingdom as you like or give it up". (3) Having been thus addressed by his father the prince Bhanandana took a wife and began to govern the kingdom piously. (4) O twice-born one, the wheel (of his car) became unobstructed all over the earth. No one had his mind in vice and all the kings became his tributaries. (5) He duty celebrated Yajnas and properly ruled the earth. He alone became the ruler of the earth and his administration extended all over. (6) To him was born a son by name Vatsapri, who, high souled (as he was), excelled, by his accomplishments, even his sire. (7) Viduratha's daughter Sounanda became his wife. She was equally great and chaste. Having slain Kujrimbha, the king of demons and the enemy of Indra, the king of gods, he obtained her by his own prowess. (8)

Kroushthik said: - "O reverend sir, do you delightedly describe to me how Vatsapri killed Kujrimbha and got her as his wife." (9)

MARKANDEYA said: - There was an illustrious king on earth by name Viduratha. He had two sons, Suniti and Sumati. (10) Once on a time, going out to the forest a-hunting he saw a huge, widening pit like the mouth of the earth. (11) Seeing it he thought. "What is this dreadful thing? Methinks this is the door to Patala. This is not of the earth". (12) While thus thinking he saw in that lonely forest a Brahmana ascetic by name Savrata. (13)

The king then wonderingly asked him: - "What it this. The very bottom of the earth is being seen through this deep pit." (14)

THE RISHI said: - O king, methinks, you do not know this; there should be nothing on earth which a king should not know. (15) There lives a highly powerful and fierce Danava in Rasatala. He makes the earth yawn and therefore he is called Kujrimbha. (16) Whatever wonder is there on earth or in heaven that is his work. How is it that you do not know him?

(17) That vicious-minded one stole away the mace Sunanda which was formerly made by the celestial Architect. He kills his enemies in battle with it. (18) Living in Patala he rives the earth with it and accordingly creates a door for all the Asuras. (19) Now he has riven the earth with that mace Sunanda. How will you enjoy this earth without having killed him? (20) This dreadful and powerful (demon) spoils sacrifices, distresses the gods and welcomes the demons. He has this mace for his weapon. (21) If you can slay that enemy living at the furtherest end of Patala then will you be the lord of the entire earth and the great god. (22) The mace of that powerful one is spoken of by people as Sounanda; O king, intelligent men call it Balavala. (23) O king, when touched by a female that mace grows powerless. On the second day it again grows powerful. (24) The vicious one does not know the prowess of his mace and the fact that it becomes powerless as soon as it is touched by a female. (25) O king, I have thus described to you the power of his mace. (26) Do you now act accordingly. O king, he has made this hole near your city. How are you then at rest?" (27) Having said this he went away. The king too, repairing to his city, began to consult there with his experienced counsellors. (28) He duly described, to his ministers as he had heard, the power of the mace and how it is destroyed.

(29) Living by his side his daughter Mudavati heard all the counsels of the king with his ministers. (30) Thereupon after the expiration of a few days the youthful Mudavati, accompanied by her friends, went to a garden. Thence Kujrimbha stole her away. (31) Hearing that and having his eyes agitated by anger the king said to his two sons who were acquainted with that forest: - "Go ye speedily. (32) There is a hole on the bank of the river

Nirvindya. Entering through that to Rasatala kill there the wicked one who has taken away Mudavati. (33)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon those two sons reached that hole and following his foot steps (they went to Rasatala); and accompanied by their army, they in anger, began to fight with Kujrimbha. (34) They set up a highly dreadful encounter with (the discharge of a) number of Parighas, Nishtringsas, darts, Saktis, Parashwadhas and shafts. (35) Thereupon having slain in battle their innumerable army that Daitya, powerful of illusion, enchained those two princes. (36) O foremost of Munis, hearing of his sons being fettered and worked up with great agony the king said to all his soldiers. (37) "I shall confer upon him, this my daughter of expansive eyes who, after having slain the demon, will release my two sons." (38) O Muni, giving up all hopes of the release of his son and daughter the king made this proclamation in his own city. (39) Thereupon Bhanandana's son Vatsapri heard of this proclamation. He was an expert in the use of weapons and was gifted with heroism. (40) Then approaching that best friend of his father's, the foremost of kings and saluting him with all humility he said: -(41) "Please command me immediately; slaying that demon by my own energy I shall release now both your son and daughter." (42)

Markandeya said: - Having embraced in joy, the son of his most beloved friend, the king said, "Go my child and achieve your object. (43) You will really do the work of a friend's son if you encompass this. Do this immediately, my child, if you are worked up with energy". (44) Thereupon taking up his dagger and bow and putting on finger protectors that heroe speedily went to the nether region through that hole. (45) There that prince set up a terrible twang with which the whole of the nether region was filled up. (46) Thereupon hearing that twang of the bow, Kujrimbha, the king of Danavas, encircled by his own army, came there in great anger.

(47) These arose an encounter between demon and the prince who had not the same strength and army as he had. (48) Having fought with him for three days the Danava, his mind filled with anger, ran forward to bring the mace. (49) O great one, that mace, made by the celestial Architect was in the inner apartment and was adored there with incense, garland and scents. (50) Mudavati knew the prowess of that mace. Therefore bending low her neck she touched the mace. (51) Then the great demon again took up the mace, and with a view to adore it touched it again and again. (52) Then that lord of Asuras went there and began to fight with the mace, but the strokes thereof became fruitless on the enemies. (53) O Muni, after his mace Sounanda had lost all its power that demon fought with his enemy in battle with various other weapons. (54) That Asura could not equal the prince in weapons. The mace was his strength - but it was made useless by the force of intellect. (55) Thereupon discomfiting all the weapons of the demon the prince immediately brought him down from the chariot. Then taking up daggers and leathern fences he ran forward. (56) When displaying greatly his prowess Kujrimbha, the enemy of Indra, came there in great anger and with fury; the prince, with his fiery weapon, effulgent like the fire of dissolution, killed him. (57) Having his heart wounded by the fiery weapon, that enemy of gods gave up his ghost. Then there arose a great festivity of the leading serpents in Rasatala. (58) Thereupon flowers were showered upon the prince, the Gandharvas sang and the celestial instruments were sounded. (59) Having slain him the prince too released the two sons of the king and his daughter Mudavati of slender make. (60) After the death of Kujrimbha, the king of the serpents, Ananta, designated Sesha, took up that mace. (61) O ascetic, that king of serpents, Sesha, was greatly pleased with Mudavati. (62) That highly beautiful damsel knew of the power of the touch of a woman's hand and so she repeatedly touched the mace Sounanda.

(63) O twice-born one, therefore Mudavati was named Sunanda by the king of serpents in great delight. This was on account of the virtue of Sounanda. (64) He then speedily brought her along with her two brothers before the king and saluting him said: -(65) "O father, by your command, I have brought your sons and daughter; command me what more shall I have to do now." (66) Thereupon the heart of the king was filled with delight. He then exclaimed in sweet words, "well-done, my boy. (67) By three-fold causes I have to-day become a courtier of the gods; you have become my son-in-law, the enemy has been killed and my children have returned unscathed. I command, to-day is an auspicious day, do you accept the hand of my

daughter Mudavati, fair of all limbs and ever delightful, O prince and make my words true".


The prince said: - "O father, it is my duty that I should carry out your order. But you know whether we have any right in this." (71) Thereupon the king celebrated the marriage of his daughter Mudavati, with Bhanandana's son. (72) Vatsapri was in his youth; he spent his days delightedly in their company in pleasant country and on the terraces of the palaces. (73) In time, his father Bhanandana became old and repaired to woods. Vatsapri became the king.

(74) He always performed Yajnas and governed his subjects righteously. That high-souled one being engaged in ruling over his subjects like their father his prosperity began to increase. In his time there was no misalliance and no fear, of the people from wild animals, robbers and wicked people; that king governing the earth there was no impediment whatsoever. (75-76)




Markandeya said: - He begat on Sunanda twelve sons. They were Prangshu, Pravira, Shoora, Suchakra, Vikrama, Krama, Vala, Vataka, Chanda, Prachanda, Suvikrama and Swarupa. They were all great and ever victorious in battle. (1-2) The eldest of them, the highly powerful Prangshu, became the king. The other brothers were submissive to him like servants. (3) His sacrifices, in which various articles were given over by the twice-born and other inferior castes, made good the name of Vasundhara. (4) He used to govern his subjects well like his own begotten sons. With his wealth, that was in his treasury, thousands of sacrifices were celebrated. There was no number of them - (even it could not be numbered) by Ajuta, Koti, Padma, etc. (5-6) His son was Prajati in whose sacrifice partaking of the offering, even the performer of hundred sacrifices, along with other celestials, attained to great delight. (7) That foremost of the powerful killed ninety-nine highly powerful and leading Danavas and their king Jambha, as well as other highly powerful enemies of the immortals.

(8) O Muni, Prajati had five sons headed by Khanitra. Amongst them Khanitra, well-known by his own prowess, became the king. (9) He was of quiet nature, truthful, heroic and ever engaged in the well-being of creatures. He was ever observant of the duties of his own order, used always to attend upon the aged and was well read in various scriptures. (10) He was a good speaker, humble, an expert in fighting and freed from haughtiness. He was beloved of all and used to say, day and night. (11) "Let all creatures be happy always and find delight even in a solitary forest. May they all live happily and be freed from fear. (12) May they not suffer from diseases and mental affliction. May all people cherish friendship towards each other. (13) May good betide the twice-born and may they love each other. May all other Varnas grow prosperous and may all attain their ends. (14) O ye people, may you all wish well of creatures as you do seek that of yourselves and your sons. (15) Such a good feeling should be cherished towards all. If no one offends the other there will be a great good (unto all). (16) Forsooth does a man reap the fruit of an evil committed by him foolishly towards another. For the fruit precedes the doer. (17) O ye people, considering this, do ye cherish good feeling towards all. Do not commit the worldly sins and then you will attain good regions. (18) Good will betide him always on earth who will love me to-day; may he even meet with auspiciousness after auspiciousness who will injure me". (19) Such was Khanitra, the son of that king. He was gifted with all accomplishments and the goddess of riches embraced him.

(20) Having placed with delight his brothers in various kingdoms he himself ruled this earth abounding in oceans. (21) He placed Shouri in the western portion, Udavasu in the southern, Sunaya in the eastern and Maharatha in the northern. (23) He and they were of separate gotras and had separate priests and ascetics. And their ministers were also hereditary. (23) Suhotra, of Atri's race, was the priest of Shouri; the priest of Udavasu, Kushavarta was born in the race of Goutama. (24) Pramati, born in the race of Kashyapa, was Sunaya's priest. And Vashishtha was the priest of the king Maharath. (25) Those kings respectively ruled over their own kingdoms. Khanitra was the king of the whole earth and their emperor. (26) That king Khanitra always sought the well-being of his brothers as well as that of his subjects like unto that of his own sons. (27) Once on a time, Shouri's minister Vishwavedin said to him, "O king, I have something to speak to you in private: (28) He alone is the king to whom belongs this entire earth and to whom all these kings are dependants. He is succeeded in order by his

son and grandson. (29) As his brothers are entitled to small properties before so their sons inherit smaller states than theirs, and their grandsons still smaller. (30) Thus getting in time poorer from generation to generation, his descendants, O king, become cultivators (in the long run). (31) A brother does not save his brother out of affection. So, O king, the relation, between their sons, becomes more estranged. (32) O king, their sons become more and more distant. Why therefore will his son love (the son of his brother)? (33) And if again a king is pleased some how or other, what is the use of his appointing ministers? (34) If you consult with me you will be able to enjoy the whole kingdom. If you are contented with it why do you keep (uselessly) a small kingdom? (35) A kingdom, which does so many things, requires both an actor and an agent. To wish for a kingdom is your work. You are a doer and we are your agents. Therefore govern your ancestral kingdom through our instrumentality. This will give you and not us fruits in the next world". (36-37)

THE KING said: - Our eldest brother has become the emperor. Since we are his younger brothers he has been ruling over the entire earth and we are ruling over small territories. (38) O highly intelligent one, we are five brothers and the earth is one; for this reason we have been ruling over separate portions. How can we all rule over the whole earth? (39)

Vishwadevi said: - True it is, O king; if the earth is one, why dost thou not, being the eldest, take it and rule over it? (40) Be thou the head of all the brothers and the emperor of the earth. As I am trying for thee so their ministers are also working for them. (41)

The king said: - Our elderst brother is a king and loves us all like his sons. How can I covet his kingdom then? (42)

Vishwadevi said: - Becoming their eldest and securing the kingdom you may also please them, O king. Amongst men seeking kingdom there is none who is the eldest and none who is the youngest. (43)

Markandeya said: - The king having agreed to this the minister Vishwadevi brought all the brothers to his side. (44) He then engaged their priests in the work of their own benediction and the destruction of Khanitra. (45) He sowed dissension amongst his followers by the various means of conciliation, charity and others. And he set forth continued exertions for continuing his own power. (46) The four priests, having carried on dreadful magical operations day and night, produced four Krityas (female deities). (47) They were greatly fierce, of dreadful faces and of mighty terrific looks. They had uplifted huge darts in their hands and were highly dreadful to look at. (48) They then came where the king Khanitra was. He was not polluted, by any sin and so they were obstructed by the collection of his virtue. (49) Those female deities then simultaneously fell upon the priests of the Kings and Vishwadevi. (50) Thereupon the female deity, by name Nihanti, completely consumed the wicked minister of the king Showri, Vishwadevi, together with the priests. (51)




Markandeya said: - They all used to live in separate cities; so when they were all killed at once all the worlds were filled with great surprise. (1) Thereupon the great king Khanitra too heard of the destruction of the priests of his brothers as well as that of his minister Vishwadevi. O foremost of Munis, he was filled with great surprise thinking "what is this?" for he did not know the cause. (2-3) Thereupon when Vashishtha came to his house the king asked him why the minister and the priests of his brother had met with death. (4) Accosted by him the great ascetic told him all fully - what was spoken to him by his minister, what he did say; how he (the minister) attempted to bring about dissension amongst the brothers and what the priests did, on being urged on by the wicked minister; (5-6) why the priests of the king, even compassionate towards the enemies, met with death, on account of their attempt to injure an innocent person. (7) Hearing this and exclaiming "Alas I am done!" the King blamed himself much, O twice-born one, before Vashistha. (8)

The King said: - "O fie on me, I have no piety - I am unfortunate - every thing is vicious in me. Destiny is adverse to me - I am sinful and the most wretched of all. (9) For me, the four Brahmanas have been killed; who else there is on earth that is more sinful than I am. (10) If I

had not been born in this earth as a man then the priests of my brother would not have met with destruction. (11) O fie on my kingdom, fie on my birth in the race of the kings, for I have been the instrument of the destruction of the twice-born. (12) They were the priests of my brothers; working for their client they met with death. They were not wicked. I am sinful for I am the cause of their death. (13) What shall I do? Where shall I go? There is no one else more sinful than I am on this earth who have been the instrument of the death of the twice-born." (14) Having his mind thus agitated and with a view to retire into the forest the Emperor Khanitra installed his son. (15) Having installed on the throne his son by name Kshupa, the king, along with his three wives, retired into woods for carrying on penances. (16) He was conversant with the duties of a Vanaprastha's life. Going into wood he carried on hard austerities for three hundred and fifty years. (17) O foremost of the twice-born, having his body reduced by hard austerities and obstructed all the currents, that foremost of kings, living in the forest, renounced his body. (18) He attained to highly sacred eternal regions conferring all wished-for objects that are gained by the kings by the performance of horse sacrifices. (19) Having given up their lives with him his three wives also attained to the same region with that fortunate king. (20) By listening to and reading the story of Khanitra one has all his sins destroyed. Hear now of the story of Kshupa. (21)




Markandeya said: - Having obtained the kingdom Kshanitra's son Kshupa pleased and righteously governed all the subjects like a father. (1) As that king was charitable and the performer of sacrifices, so was he, in the conduct of men, impartial towards his friends and foes. (2) O Muni, one day while he was in his own room, the panegyrists said that he was like the king Kshupa of the days of yore. (3) Brahma's son Kshupa was formerly the king of the earth; the conduct of the present (king) was like his. (4)

The king said: - "I wish to hear of the life of the great Kshupa. I shall try to lead a life like his".


The panegyrists said: - "O king, formerly the king Kshupa freed the kine and the Brahmanas from taxes. And that high-souled one used to celebrate sacrifices with, the sixth portion of his revenue". (6)

The king said: - "What man like myself can imitate those high-souled kings? How can one like myself endeavour to follow their best conduct? (7) Hear what promise I have recently made. I shall imitate the conduct of that great king Kshupa. (8) I make this promise on this earth of four Varnas that I shall celebrate three sacrifices each with one corn. (9) I shall return the taxes to the Brahmanas and the kine which they had paid before to the king." (10)

Markandeya said: - Having promised this Kshupa satisfied it. That foremost, of those who celebrate sacrifices, performed three sacrifices with one corn. (11) He made gifts to other Brahmanas and kine equivalent to the value of the rents paid to him by the Brahmanas and the kine. (12) That king begat on his queen Pramatha a highly heroic and praiseworthy son by whose prowess and bravery all the kings were brought to subjection. (13) Nandini, of Vidharbha, became his wife; that lord begat on her a son by name Vivingsha. (14) While the highly powerful Vivingsha governed the earth, its whole surface was continually filled to the brim with people. (15) The clouds discharged showers in proper time and the earth yielded harvest. The corns were ripe and the fruits were juicy. (16) All the juices conduced to the nourishment - and this nourishment was not converted into the instrument of madness for any one. Although coming by immense riches people were not inflated with pride. (17) O great Muni, the enemies were terrified by his prowess and the friends, attaining health, were filled with delight. (18) Having celebrated many sacrifices, governed the earth well and been killed in a battle he attained to the region of Shakra. (19)




Markandeya said: - His son was Khaninetra, endued with great strength and prowess. In his Yajna, the Gandharvas, filled with surprise, sang. (1) There was none equal to Khaninetra on this earth in the performance of sacrifices. He celebrated an Ayuta of sacrifices and made a

gift of the earth with oceans. (2) Having made a gift of the entire earth unto the high-souled Brahmanas, and having acquired articles by asceticism he released it. (3) The riches, of that highly charitable king, being multiplied the Brahmanas had to accept gifts from no other king.

(4) He collected profuse gifts for sixty-seven thousand, sixty-seven hundred and sixty-seven sacrifices. (5) O great Muni, he had no son. Therefore to collect meat for the performance of sacrifices in honour of the Pitris for having a son he went out a-hunting. (6) Without any soldiers, he, alone on horse back, with leathern finger protectors, arrows, bow and swords, entered into a huge forest. (7) As soon as he urged on his steed for going elsewhere, a deer, issuing out of the dense forest, said to him: "Having slain me do you accomplish your object".


The king said: - "Seeing me the other deer have fled away in great fear; why are you, sacrificing yourself, anxious for death"? (9)

The deer said: - "O great king, I have no issue and therefore useless is my birth. O king, thus I see no necessity of living". (10) Thereupon coming there another deer said to him in the presence of the other deer "O king, there is no use of killing him. (11) Slaying me, accomplish your work with my meat. Then only I shall achieve my object and be greatly benefited. (12) O great king, you are willing to celebrate a sacrifice in honour of your manes for having a son. How will you thus accomplish your end with the meat of that deer which has no issue? (13) You should procure things befitting the work undertaken. By a bad smell, that of sweet scented articles is not determined." (14)

The King said: - "The deer has just mentioned to me the fact of his having no issue as the cause of his disgust for the world. Relate now why you, out of disgust, wish to renounce your life." (15)

The deer said: - I have many sons and many daughters. I always live in the midst of the forest fire of sorrow consequent upon anxiety for them. (16) O king, the deer are always very weak and are therefore brought under the control of all. I have a great attachment for my children and accordingly I am very sorry. (17) For I live in a perpetual dread of men, lions, tigers, wolves, and others, even of the dogs and jackals, O lord, who are inferior to all creatures. (18) Therefore, for those children of mine, I always wish that the earth may be freed from the fear of men, lions, etc. (19) Even for bringing them up I wish that the kine and horses, that graze on grass may meet with death. (20) When my young ones go out into different directions, hundreds of thoughts possess me whose mind is full of attachment. (21) (Methinks) my son, while roaming in the forest, is either ensnared in a net, or assailed by a thunderbolt or has been belaboured by men or lions. (22) If one amongst them comes home (I always think) "one has come perhaps others have wandered away into the great forest; what may be their state." (23) O king, when all my sons come to me, I feel a little delighted and then begin to think of their well-being for the night. (24) When the dawn sets in I pray for their well-being for all the day and when the sun sets I pray for the night. I always wish that they may meet with well-being for all the hours of the day. (25) I have thus related to you, O king, the cause of my anxiety; therefore show me the favour and discharge the shaft at me. (26) I have thus described and you have heard, O king, why being afflicted with a hundred miseries, I wish to renounce my life. (27) Those, who lay violent hands on themselves, repair to the regions void of the sun. But O lord, the beasts, of sacrifices, attain to better regions. (28) Formerly the fire became a beast and even Varuna, the lord of waters, became so. And then the sun too, meeting with death in the shape of a beast of sacrifice, attained to the region of Uchriti. (29) Therefore, O lord, confer upon me this Uchriti. And then obtaining a son, you will achieve your object. (30)

The first deer said: - O king, do not slay him; he has many sons and blessed and fortunate is he therefore. Therefore, kill me, for I have no issue. (31)

The second Deer said: - Blessed are you, for you have the misery for one body - I have many bodies and therefore innumerable are my sorrows. (32) When I was single I had one single misery on account of my attachment for my body. When I took a wife that misery became two-fold. (33) When the children were born the miseries multiplied themselves proportionate to the number of their bodies. (34) Are you not blessed as you have not taken

your birth for this excessive misery? My birth in this world is for misery - and this will bring in impediments in the next world. (33) And as I always think and try for the protection and maintenance of my children I shall forsooth be born in hell. (36)

The King said: - O deer, I cannot discern, whether a man, with sons, is blessed or one who has no issue. I have undertaken this sacrifice for children, therefore my mind is full of doubts.

(37) True, a son brings on miseries in this world and the next, but I have heard that a man, who, has no son, is involved in debts. (38) Therefore, O deer, without slaying any animal I shall engage in hard austerities for a son like the former king. (39)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon repairing to the sin-destroying Gomati, the king, observing regulation, pleased the god Purandara. (1) Having restrained the functions of the body, mind and speech and concentrating his mind, he, with hard penances, began to chant the glories of Indra for a son. (2) O great Muni, being propitiated by his asceticism, devotion and the recitation of hymns the god Indra said to him: (3) "O king, I have been pleased with thee for thy ascetic observances, devotion and the recitation of the hymns. Tell me, what boon you do pray for". (4)

The King said: - I am sonless, may a son be born to me and may he be the foremost of heroes, pious, religious and successful and may his prosperity never decrease. (5)

Markandeya said: - Sakra having said 'so be it' the king, obtaining the accomplishment of his object, returned to his own city for governing his subjects. (6) There he engaged in celebrating sacrifices and governing his subjects well. By the favour of Sakra a son was born to him. (7) His father, the king, gave him the name of Balashwa and trained him in the use of diverse arms. (8) After the demise of his father he sat on the throne and became the king. Balashwa brought all the kings of the earth under his subjection. (9) Having taken the principal portion that king made them all pay revenues and governed all his subjects. (10) Thereupon all those kings and his powerful kinsmen rose up and stopped the payment of revenue. (11) They all, setting themselves up as independent kings in their respective kingdoms and growing discontented, occupied the earth of the king. (12) O Muni, he, then growing weak, began to live in his own city. All other kings made dissensions with him. (10) Approaching him all those kings, who were highly powerful and gifted with riches and various means, imprisoned the Emperor. (14) When his city was besieged he grew angry. But having impoverished treasury and arms he became very much poorly. (15) O foremost of the twice-born, then finding no means for the protection of his army, he, with his mind aggrieved, put his hand on his mouth and began to sigh. (16) Then invoked by his breath there came out through the cavity of his hand hundreds of chariots, serpents, horses and soldiers. (17) That highly powerful and excellent army soon covered the city of the king, O great Muni. (18) Then being encircled by that huge and highly powerful army and issuing out of his city the king vanquished them all.

(19) Having defeated them, brought them under subjection and made them pay tributes, that great king was again crowned with prosperity. (20) And because from the shaking of his hands originated that army which destroyed the enemies, Balashwa was called Karandhama by the people. (21) He was virtuous, great and friendly towards all animals. The king Karandhama became famous in the three worlds. (22) Having obtained this army from virtue he destroyed the enemies of all terror-striken people. (23)




Markandeya said: - Viryachandra's daughter Veera, of beautiful eye-brows and observant of vows, married in Sayamvara the great king Karandhama. (1) On her the powerful king begat a son by name Avikshita who gained renown on the surface of the earth. (2) On his birth the king consulted the astrologers, "Is my son born in good time and under auspicious stars? (3) Have the auspicious stars cast their looks on the birth of my sons? Have not the evil stars looked on him"? (4) Having been thus accosted by the king the astrologers said to him: - "This your highly powerful, energetic and great son is born in good conjunction and under auspicious stars. O king, your son will be emperor. (5-6) Residing in the seventh house Guru

and Sukra have cast their looks on him. Soma, living in the fourth, house, has cast his look on him. (7) Residing at a corner Soma's son too has cast his look on him. But the Sun, Bhowma and Shani have not cast their looks on him. (8) O great king, your son will be fortunate and will be endowed with all auspiciousness and prosperity." (9) Having heard the words of the astrologers and having his mind filled with delight, the king, in his own house, said to them: -(10) "Amongst the gods, Vrihaspati, Sukra, Soma and his son have cast their looks on him and the Sun, Mangala and Sani have not cast their looks on the boy. (11) Since you have repeatedly used the word Avekshata (seen) my son will be celebrated on earth by the name of Avikshita". (12)

Markandeya said: - His son Avikshita was well read in the Vedas and their divisions. He received the knowledge of weapons from Kanwa's son. (13) That prince excelled in beauty the two Açwinis, in intellect Vrihaspati, in grace the moon, in effulgence the sun, in gravity the ocean and in patience the earth. In heroism there was none equal to that high-souled one. (14-15) Him did accept in Swyamvara, Himadharma's daughter Vara, Sudiva's daughter Gouri, Vali's daughter Lilavati, Veerabhadra's daughter Anibha, Bhima's daughter Manyavati and Dambha's daughter Kumudvati. (16-17) They all welcomed him in Swayamvara. Having vanquished all the princes as well as the members of their paternal family and resorting to his own strength, that powerful and heroic prince too, elated with his own strength, took them all by force. (18-19) Once on a time, Vaishalini, of fine teeth, the daughter of Vishala, the king of Videsha, held her Swayamvara. He was not selected by her. Therefore that (prince), proud of the strength, having vanquished all the kings, O saint, carried her away by force. (20-21) Thereupon having been insulted and defeated by that proud prince all those numberless kings spoke to each other: (22) "Do ye allow this damsel to he carried away by one against so many powerful kings of one caste. Oh! fie on ye, O kings. (23) He alone is a Kshatriya who saves one when assailed by powerful man. Others take this name for nothing. (24) How is your consideration, that you born in a Kshatriya race, do not save yourselves from this wicked one. (25) O false is the eulogy that is chanted by the poets, panegyrits and prisoners. Make it good, O heroes, by destroying your enemy. (26) You are all born in eminent families. Resorting to your manliness do not make an idle sound of the word, king, in all the quarters.

(27) Who does not fear death? Who becomes immortal without fighting? Thinking of this, manliness should not be destroyed by those who trade in arms". (28) Hearing this and filled with revenge the kings spoke to each other and took up their weapons. (29) Some got upon the chariots, some rode the elephants, some horses and others, the infantry, filled with revenge, followed them. (30)




Markandeya said: - Thus the kings and princes, arranged in order of battle, vanquished a good many of them, waiting for that time. (1) Then there arose a dreadful encounter between him and them - one with many kings and mighty princes, O Muni. (2) All those greatly powerful (kings) with swords, Saktis, club and arrows in their hands, fought with him; he too fought with them all. (3) That highly powerful son of a king, an adept in the use of arms, pierced them with a hundred fierce arrows. They too struck him with sharpened shafts. (4) Some had their arms torn, some had their heads sundered, some were wounded to the very vitals and others were struck on the breast. (5) They sundered the trunks of the elephants and the heads of the horses and then again the horses of the other party's cars as well as their charioteers. (6) The arrows, falling down, sundered twain the shafts of the enemies. He cut off the sword of the enemies as well as their heads by virtue of light-bandedness. Their armours being shattered the prince killed the enemies. And seeing others wounded the infantry left the battle-field. (8) The entire host of kings being thus agitated seven hundred heroes stood there determined upon meeting with death. (9) They were all of respectable pedigree, elderly, heroic and modest. After all the solders had been defeated and taken to their heels, that son of the king, greatly worked up with anger, fought righteously with all those kings, approaching them one by one. (11-12) That highly powerful one attempted there to shatter their weapons and coats of mail; they too, O great Muni, worked up with rage, renouncing righteousness, began to fight with him who was combating righteously. All the princes began to perspire like

a forest filled with water. (13-14) Some he wounded with a collection of arrows; and the armours of others were shattered by him and again he struck down on earth the standards of others. (15) Others killed the horses and broke down the chariots and drove the charioteer with the strokes of clubs and arrows. (16) On his bow being shattered, the prince, in anger, took up his sword and shield and that even was struck down by another. (17) Having his sword and shield shattered that one, the foremost of those holding maces, took up his mace. And that too, one cut off with a horse-shoe headed arrow like one of a sure aim. (18) All those kings, ever averse to a fair fight, forming a trough, sundered them, some with a thousand shafts, some with a hundred shafts. (19) When assailed by many, he, being over-powered, fell down on earth; thereupon those great princes bound him. (20) Then having over-powered that prince by unfair means they all, along with the king Vishala, entered the city of Vidisha. (21) Having brought that prince bound, they all rejoiced and delightedly placed him before the maiden who had arranged for the Swayamvara. (22) She was again urged on by her father and the priest, saying "choose any one amongst the kings as your husband". (23) When that honoured damsel did not choose any one as her husband O Muni, the king asked the astrologer, for the marriage (saying): -(24) "Tell me of a day which is best suited for her marriage; to-day has been sullied by a battle which has presented many obstacles." (25)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having been thus addressed by the king the astrologer Durmanas, informed of best things, thinking said to him: (36) "O king, there shall soon be other days that will be greatly auspicious for the marriage. (27) O conferrer of honours, you may celebrate the marriage when that comes. There is no need of celebrating this on this day when a huge obstacle has presented itself." (28)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon Karandhama heard of his son being fettered as well as his wife and other heroes of his party. (1) Then hearing of his son being taken away by unfair means by all the kings of the earth, O great Muni, the king engaged in meditation. (2) Some of the kings said that all those kings, by whom he had been fettered by unfair means in battle, should be slain. (3) "Arrange soon the army" said others "what is the use of waiting. The wicked Vishala should be slain as well as others who have assembled there". (4) Others said that the morality was not observed here by Avikshata, for she, not wishing him, was taken away by unfair force. (5) In that Swayamvara where numberless kings (were present) that princess was imposed upon by him and he was overpowered by them all collectively". (6) Hearing those words that heroic (queen) the mother of a heroic son, the wife of a heroic husband, and who had descended from a heroic family, was pleased; and she said before her husband and other kings: - "The kings were treated well by my son who (always) does good. Taking away that girl by force and vanquishing all the kings, he fought for her. To fight with one alone is not fair. Besides, I do not see any blame on the part of my son that may lead to the destruction of his glory. (7-9) This constitutes manliness for him who does not observe morality. Even a lion, who kills creatures, does not consider it fair. (10) That maiden, who was present at the Swayamvara, was taken away by my son in the presence of many respectable kings. (11) Who, born in the race of a Kshatriya, begs - a practice resorted to by the mean. A Kshatriya takes (a thing) by force in the presence of the powerful. (12) They (even), when fettered with iron chains, and assailed, do not seek protection; even the pious kings do (things) by force. (13) Therefore, useless it is to be sorry; praiseworthy is his being fettered and as well as the fall of weapons on your heads. (14) Even if taken stealthily the earth, sons, wealth, wife and preceptors of the kings become sources of their glory. (15) Therefore proceed quickly to the battle; get up on your chariots and arrange without delay horses, elephants and charioteers. (16) Are you thinking of the fight with many kings? Does a little fight lead to the satisfaction of a heroe. (17) Who is not capable of fighting with a small number of kings, whom even the afflicted amongst the enemies does not fear? (18) He is the heroe who discomfits all the worlds like the sun dispelling darkness". (19)

Markandeya said: - O Muni, having been thus urged on by his wife, the king Karandhama made military arrangements for the destruction of his son's enemies. (20) O great saint, then there took place an encounter between the king Vishala whose son had been imprisoned

and those innumerable kings. (21) There continued for three days the battle between the king Karandhama and all those kings following Vishala. (22) After all the kings had been defeated, Vishala with Arghya in his hand, arrived before Karandhama. (23) Being worshipped by that king and pleased with him and on his son being released Karandhama spent the night happily. (24) When Vishala, with the daughter, arrived there, Avikshita, O sage, spoke before his father, for marriage: (25) "O king, I shall not take her or any other damsel who had been seen by others. I had been also defeated in battle. (26) I shall confer her upon some body else. Let some one, whose fame is unsullied, who is powerful and who has not been insulted by his enemies, pray for her. (27) I was defeated by my enemies and belaboured by them like a poor woman. Where is manliness for me? My heart does not belong to her. (28) Men are always independent, only the females are dependant. Where is manliness, for him who is dependant? (29) How can he, who had been before her very eyes thrown on the ground by other kings, see her again. How can I see her"? (30) Having been thus addressed by his son the king said to him: - "I have heard your word, O my son, high-souled as you are. (31) O auspicious damsel, select any other husband whom you like. O you of beautiful looks, I shall confer upon you a habitation wherever you like under the Sun". (32)

The Girl said: - O king, he has been defeated by many in a battle destructive of his fame and prowess. But they did not act fairly. (33) Having confronted many in battle like a lion he displayed his most excellent heroism. (34) He not only stood in battle. And although defeated by so many in battle he displayed his prowess. (35) He is endowed with bravery and prowess. He fought with all the kings in fair battle but they vanquished him unfairly. Where is the shame then? (36) O father, it is not by his beauty only that I have come to love him, but my mind has been attracted by his heroism, prowess and patience. (37) What is the use of speaking more. Beg him for me, O king. Save this high-minded one, no one else shall be my husband." (39)

VISHALA said: - O prince, really my daughter has given vent to most excellent words. There is no other prince like thee on the surface of the earth. (39) Incomparable is thy heroism and great is thy prowess. By taking this daughter of mine, do thou purify my race. (40)

THE PRINCE said: - O king, I shall not take her nor any other damsel. The thought of a woman shall be concentrated on me only, O king. (41)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon Karandhama said: - "O my son, take her; the fair daughter of Vishala has been firmly attached to thee". (42)

The prince said: - "O lord, I had never before violated thy command. Therefore order me, my father, I shall carry out thy mandate". (43) (Beholding) the prince firmly made up against his daughter Vishala, having his mind agitated, said to her: -(44) "Take away your mind, O daughter, from him. Select any other husband. There are many other princes". (45)

The Girl said: - "O father, if he does wish to take me, I shall, after carrying on penances, pray for this boon that even in other births, I may not have any other husband". (46) Thereupon having spent there in delight three days, the king Karandhama repaired to his own city. (47) Having been consoled by his father, other kings and the citizens, with various tokens Avikshita too repaired to his own city. (48) Repairing to woods, divorced from her own relations, abstaining from food and cherishing most excellent disgust for the world that maiden too carried on penances. (49) Abstaining from food for three months and suffering from great affliction she was reduced and her veins were weakened. (50) Having lost all energy and desirous of dying that maiden princess, of a slender body, made up her mind to forsake her life. (51) Thereupon coming to know that she had made up her mind to put an end to herself the celestials sent their emissary to her. (52) Approaching the princess the emissary said to her: - "Hear, for what I have been sent to you by the gods. (53) You should not renounce the body which it is so difficult to get; you will be the mother of a Lord Paramount.

(55) O great lady, having slain all his enemies, and with his commands never battled he will enjoy for long this earth consisting of seven insular continents. (55) He will kill first Tarujit, the enemy of the gods as well as the dreadful Ayas-Shanku. And he will establish his subjects in morality. (56) By him will be slain the robbers, Mlechas as well as other wicked people. (57) O

lady, he will perform various sacrifices, sixty-thousand in number, such as horse-sacrifice and others, finished with profuse gifts." (68) Beholding him stationed in the sky and adorned with celestial garlands and pastes the princess said gently to the emissary of the gods: (59) "True it is, O emissary of the gods, that thou hast come here from the celestial region. There is no doubt in this. But how without a husband a son will be born to me? (60) I have taken this vow in the presence of my sire that save Avikshita no one else will be my husband even in another birth. (61) He does not (however) want me. He was requested by my father, by Karandhama, as well as by myself". (62)

The Emissary of the Gods said: - What is the use of speaking more, O great lady? A son will be born to thee. Do not commit the sin of renouncing thy own life. (63) Live in this forest and nourish thy weak body. By virtue of asceticism thou shalt fare well." (64) Having said this the emissary of the gods repaired where he came from. That lady of beautiful eye-brows daily nourished her own body. (65)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon the heroic mother of Avikshita, a mother of heroic sons, summoning him on an auspicious day, said: (1) "O my son, I shall fast for observing the vow of Kimichaka. I have been ordered by your high-souled sire. (2) This is within the power of yourself and myself. If you promise, my son, I shall take the vow. (3) I shall confer upon you the half of your father's treasure. The wealth is your father's (no doubt) but I have obtained permission from him. (4) The vow, although a very hard one, is in my power and will produce well-being. Even if you can accomplish it by putting forth your power and energy, even if it be beyond your power, or you can accomplish it with difficulty, still if you promise it, O my son, I shall get it; speak out your mind". (5-6)

Avikshita said: - "Wealth is in my father's possession. I am not its master. Whatever can be accomplished by my body, I shall do it at your command. (7) You will accomplish your Kimichaka vow, O mother, if you have obtained the permission of my father, the king, who is the master of riches. Remove your anxiety and sorrow". (8) Thereupon the queen began to observe the vow. With words, body and mind restrained she began to worship the king of kings, the numberless Nidhis, the protectors thereof and as well as Lakshmi, (the goddess of riches) with great devotion. (9-10) The king Karandhama, while he was seated in his house, was thus addressed by his ministers well-versed in the science of Polity. (11)

The ministers said: - O king, governing the earth you have grown old. You have only one son Avikshita who has made up his mind not to take a wife. (12) While that sonless (prince) shall engage in religions practices, O king, the earth shall forsooth pass into the hands of your enemies. (13) You race will be exterminated and the ancestral manes will be deprived of water and Pinda. This great fear of the enemies will put obstacles in your religious practices. (14) Therefore accomplish that, O king, by which your son may cherish a desire leading to the well-being of your ancestral manes. (15)

Markandeya said: - In the meantime the king heard the words addressed by the priest to the beggars. (16) "Who wants what? What is there which it will be hard for them to achieve since Karandhama's queen is observing the vow Kimichaka." (17) Hearing the priest's words the prince Avikshita said to all the beggars assembled at the palace-gate. (18) "Let every one say what he wants. I shall even accomplish it with my body. My great mother is observing the vow of Kimichaka. (16) Hear, O ye beggars, I promise that I shall give whatever you will want for the vow of Kimichaka is being observed (by my mother). Thereupon hearing these words given vent to by his son the king approaching him said: - "O son, I am a beggar: Give me what I wish". (21)

AVIKSHITA said: - Tell me, O father, what I shall have to give you, even if it be very difficult to procure, whether within my power or not." (22)

The KING said: - "If you are truthful, give me what I wish. Show me the face of my grandson seated on my lap". (23)

Avikshita said: - I am your only son, O king, and am observing a life of celibacy. How can I show you the face of a grandson? (24)

THE KING said: - The life of celibacy, that you are leading, is taking you to sin. Therefore release yourself from that and show me a grandson. (25)

AVIKSHITA said: - This is a difficult thing, O king; order me for some thing else. Retiring from the world I have given up associating with females. (26)

THE KING said: - I have been seeing my many enemies coming off victorious. Still if you wish to retire from the world, you are an ignorant man. (26) What is the use of speaking more? Give up your life of celibacy. Show me and your mother the face of a grandson. (28)

MARKANDEYA said: - Although repeatedly requested by his son the king did not pray for any thing else. The son then said again. (29) "Offering to give you what you will want I have fallen into a great difficulty, O father; therefore, being shameless, I shall take a wife. (30) Before a female I was vanquished and thrown on earth. I shall be again the husband of a woman. O father, it is a very hard thing (for me). (31) Still what shall I do? I have come within the fold of truth. I shall do what you say; govern your own kingdom." (32)




Markandeya said: - Once on a time while roaming a-hunting in the forest, the prince, having killed deer, boars, tigers and other animals, heard all on a sudden the voice of a female, (saying): - "Save me! save!" and bewailing in piteous accents suppressed by fear. (1-2) Exclaiming "Don't fear! don't fear" that prince quickly urged on his steed to whence the sound proceeded. (3) There bewailed the damsel in that lonely forest being caught firm by the hair by the son of Danu. (4) (She said) "A non-aryan is taking me away in this forest who am the wife of the intelligent king Avikshita, the son of Karandhama. (5) All the kings, Gandharvas, as well as Guhyakas are not capable of standing before him. I am his wife and am being carried away. (6) He has the anger of death and prowess of Sakra. I am the wife of that son of Karandhama and am being carried away." (7)

Markandeya said: - Hearing this that prince, who had the bow in his hand, thought. "How is this? My wife in the forest. (8) Forsooth this is the illusion of the wicked Rakshasas who live in the forest. Or who has come here? I shall ascertain the cause of all." (9) Going there speedily he saw in that forest a highly beautiful maiden adorned with all ornaments. She was caught by the hair by the son of Danu, with a club in his hand and was repeatedly exclaiming "Save me! Save me!". (10-11)

He said: - "Don't fear, don't fear. He is already slain. The king Karandhama governing the earth, what wicked man can live here? All the kings of the earth have been humbled by his prowess". (12) Beholding him approach, with an excellent bow in his hand, that slender-made damsel said "Save me! save me! I am being carried away by him. I am the daughter-in-law of the king Karandhama and the wife of Avikshita. I have a lord but am being carried away by this wicked (demon) like one who has none". (13-14)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon Avikshita began to consider the words given vent to by her. (He thought) "How is she my wife and the daughter-in law of my father? (15) I shall first release this fair one and then ascertain the cause. The Kshatriyas hold their arms for saving the distressed." (16) Thereupon the heroe, worked up with anger, said to that highly wicked demon: - "Live and go and let her alone; or else you will not live". (17) Thereupon releasing her and taking up his club the demon ran towards him. He too covered him with shafts. (18) Having been covered with arrows, that demon, excited with pride, hurled his club, coated with a hundred goads, at that prince. (19) While it was about to fall (on him) the prince cut it into pieces with his arrows. Then taking it up immediately with a loud cry Dama stood in the battle-field. (20) Creating a down pour of shafts he discharged them at Dama. He too cut them into pieces with pikes shot off his bow. (21) Then the demon discharged a stone at the prince. That too, discharged by his light handedness, fell down baffled on earth. (22) The prince easily cut into pieces with arrows all the weapons that the demon hurled at him in anger. (23)

Thereupon having his club and all the weapons broken, the demon, clenching his fist, ran towards the prince. (24) Thereupon cutting off his head, who fell on him, with a Vetasa leaf the prince threw it on the ground. (25) That wicked demon being slain all the gods began to praise Karandhama's son saying "well done! well done!" (26) On being addressed by the gods saying "pray for a boon" the prince said "I pray for a son, highly powerful, for encompassing the delight of my sire." (27)

The Gods said: - "O sinless one, you will beget a highly powerful son, a lord Paramount, on this girl released by you." (28)

The prince said: - I have made this promise by my sire that I shall wish for a son. But being thrown down on earth by the kings I gave up all desire of taking a wife. (29) And so I did renounce the daughter of king Vishala; she too for me has declined to take any other husband. (30) Tell me then how leaving aside the daughter of Vishala I shall like, a cruel hearted person, take any other woman as my wife? (31)

The Gods said: - She is your wife of whom you spoke so highly, the daughter of Vishala having fair eye-brows and who is carrying on penances for you. (32) On her you will beget a heroic son, who will conquer the seven insular continents, perform a thousand sacrifices and who will be Lord Paramount. (33)

Markandeya said: - O twice born one, having said this to Karandhama's son the gods went away. He too then said to his wife: - "O timid lady, what is this?" (34)

She then said to him: - "Having been forsaken by you and left behind all my people, I came here out of disgust of mind. (35) Here, O heroe, having my body weakened by hard austerities I was about to renounce my life when an emissary of the gods brought me the intelligence.

(36) "You will give birth to a highly powerful son who will be Lord Paramount. He will satisfy the gods and destroy the demons." (37) Having been thus informed of the command of the gods by their emissary I did not renounce my life with the hope of being united with you. (38) Day before yesterday, O great one, I went to the Ganges to bathe. As soon as I got there I was over-powered by an old serpent. (39) Then I was taken by him to Rasatala. There thousands of serpents, their wives and sons pleased me and others adored me; then the serpents and their females humbly prayed to me. (40-41) "Show us the favour of preventing your son from slaying us who will offend him. (42) The (serpents) living on air will commit offence by your son. You should prevent him. Show us this favour". (43) After I had said 'so be it' I was adorned with beautiful ornaments of Patala flowers, scents and heavenly raiments.

(44) Then I was brought here by the serpent equally beautiful and graceful as I was before. (45) Seeing me thus beautiful and adorned with ornaments this highly wicked demon caught me by the hair with a view to carry me away. (46) O prince, I have now been released by the strength of your arms, O you of large arms; be pleased and take me. There is no other prince on this earth like you. I speak the truth. (47)




Markandeya said: - Hearing thus her words and remembering the excellent words of his father which the king said after he had taken the vow of Kimichaka the prince Avikshita said to the maiden. "I have my mind always attached to you; for you I renounced all sorts of enjoyment; As I forsook you of slender body on being defeated by the enemies so I have again obtained you after having vanquished my foes. Tell me what I shall do". (1-3)

The maiden said: - Do thou accept my hand in this charming forest. The union, of one willing with another equally willing, produces good results. (4)

The Prince said: - May good betide you. Providence is the instrument in this or why have we met elsewhere? (5)

Markandeya said: - In the meantime, O Muni, Gandharva Tunaya came there accompanied by most excellent Apsaras and Gandharvas. (6)

The Gandharva said: - O prince, she is my beautiful daughter by name Bhamini. By the imprecation of Agastya she became Vishala's daughter. (7) By her childish freaks she excited the wrath of Agastya who imprecated a curse (on her saying), "Be you a woman". (8)

We however pleased him, saying: - "O Saint, she is a thoughtless girl. You should forgive her and show us the favour". (9) Being propitiated by us the great Muni said: - "Considering her as a child I gave a small curse; while I have pronounced it, it shall never be otherwise". (10) Then by the curse of Agastya my fair girl is born as Manini in the house of Vishala. (11) For her I have come here. Take this princess, my daughter. She will give birth to your son who will be Lord Paramount. (12)

Markandeya said: - Having said 'so be it' the prince duly accepted her hand. Tamvuru performed Homa there. (13) Gods and Gandharvas sang there - the Apsaras danced, the clouds showered flowers and the celestial instruments were sounded. (14) There came at the nuptials of the prince all the protectors of wealth who are the givers and the agents of prosperity. (15) O Muni, then they all, without any exception, went to the region of the Gandharvas along with that high-souled one. The prince and princess also accompanied them. (16) The prince Avikshita enjoyed there in the company of Bhamini. She too in his company enjoyed various objects of desire. (17) Sometimes he sported with her in the garden of the city and sometimes on the hillocks; (18) sometimes on the banks of a river beautified with swans and Sarasas and sometimes in the beautiful palace situated at the terminus of the house. (19) He, with that slender-made damsel and she with that high-souled one, sported day and night in various charming countries. (20) The Munis, Gandharvas and Kinnaras brought for them there various edibles, pastes, raiments, garlands and excellent drinks. (21) That good damsel gave birth to a son for that heroe spending his days happily with Bhamini in the region of Gandharvas unattainable by others. (22) O foremost of men, on that highly powerful son being born there took place a great festivity of the Gandharvas. (23) Some of them sang, some played on Mridanga, trumpets and Anaka and some played on Venu, Vina and other musical instruments. (24) There danced innumerable Apsaras, the clouds discharged showers of flowers and the wind blew gently. (25) When there arose a great tumult Tumvura, being thought of by Tunaya, came there and performed the Jatakarma ceremony, O Muni. (26) There came the gods and the immaculate celestial saints and the leading Nagas headed by Sesha, Vasuki and Takshaka from Patala. (27) And came all the leaders, O foremost of the twice-born, of the gods, Asuras, Yakshas and Guhyakas and all the Vayus.

(28) The great city of the Gandharvas was agitated by all the Rishis, gods, Danavas, Pannagas and Munis, who had come there. (29) Having performed all the ceremonies consequent on the birth of the child, Tumvaru undertook the performance of a benedictory rite preceded by eulogy. (30) "Do thou, becoming a Lord Paramount, highly powerful, energetic and mighty-armed, rule over this endless earth for a long time. (31) May Sakra and all the gods, all the Lokapalas and Rishis, do good, O heroe, to your prowess destructive of your enemies. (32) May Marut do you good, and may it blow with no dust before it. And the pure southern wind shall blow gently for you. (33) The Western Marut will give you most excellent energy and the northern Marut will give you great prowess." (34) After the completion of this benedictory rite a voice, without any body, said "there will be many Maruts for you as the preceptor has said. And accordingly he will be celebrated on earth by the name of Marutta. (35) All the kings on earth will carry out his command. And this heroe will be at the head of all kings. (36) Having subdued all the kings this highly powerful Lord Paramount will enjoy, without any obstruction, the earth consisting of seven insular continents. (37) He will be the head of all the kings celebrating sacrifices and he will excel all the kings in heroism and energy." (38)

MARKANDEYA said: - Hearing the words of the gods expressed through some one all the Vipras, Gandharvas and as well as his parents were delighted. (39)




Markandeya said: - Thereupon taking that dear son and followed by Vipras and Gandharvas on foot the prince went to his own city. (1) Having reached his father's house he saluted his

feet with reverence. And so did the bashful thin-built princess. (3) Then taking the boy the prince said to king Karandhama seated on the throne of justice in the midst of all kings. (3) "Behold now the face of your grandson seated on your lap as promised by me in the Kimichaka vow of my mother". (4) Having said this and placed the boy on his father's lap he described, in full, everything to him. (5) Then seeing his grandson and having his eyes filled with tears of joy he again and again spoke highly of himself, saying "fortunate I am." (6) Thereupon forgetting every other important business he delightedly, with Arghya, honored all the Gandharvas who had come there. (7) Thereupon there took place in the houses of all citizens a great festivity, who all thought, "A son is born to us and not to him." (8) That city being delighted and filled with the singing and music of beautiful damsels, other women, of exquisite beauty, began to dance. (9) The king delightedly made unto the leading twice-born gifts of jewels, riches, kine, raiments and ornaments. (10) That boy grew up like the moon in the light half of the month. He gave delight to his parents and was loved by his people. (11) O Muni, he first took lessons in the Vedas from the preceptors and then in numberless scriptures and then in the science of archery. (12) He was always energetic in the use of swords and bow; and that heroe never felt tired in the use of other weapons too. (13) Thereupon, O Vipra, being humble and reverent towards his preceptor he took lessons in arms from Bhargava of Bhrigu's race. (14) Having learnt the use of arms, mastered the Vedas and seen the other end of archery he became highly accomplished in all branches of learning. (15) Vishala too, having heard all of his daughter and of the proficiency of her son, had his mind filled with joy. (16) Having seen his grandson and obtained his desired-for object the king performed many sacrifices and gave away gifts to many. (17) Having performed many ceremonies, the king, gifted with strength and intellect (as he was) and (ever) vanquishing his enemies, piously ruled the earth with the help of his own caste people. (18) Then desirous of returning into the forest he said to his son Avikshita: - "O son, I have grown old. I shall therefore go to the forest; take from me this kingdom. (19) I have no other (desire) save your installation. Do you take from me this well established kingdom which I offer you". (20) Thus accosted by his father, the prince Avikshita, having his mind bent upon going to the forest for carrying on penances, said humbly to him: (21) "O father, I shall not rule over this earth. My mind does not find pleasure in kingdom. Appoint (therefore) another man. (22) When I was enchained I was released by my father not by my own prowess. Where is then manliness for me and the earth is to be governed by manliness. (23) How can I, who could not protect my own self, preserve this earth? Therefore confer this kingdom upon some body else. (24) How can the man, who had been overpowered by others and who had been released by you from the bow, observe the duty of his own order? How can I, who have the nature of a female, be a king?" (25)

The Father said: - There is no distinction between a father and a son. As is the father so is the son. O heroe, you were not released by any one else but by your father. (26)

The Son said: - O king, I cannot change my mind otherwise. There is a great shame in my mind since I was released by you. (27) He, who enjoys the riches acquired by his father, who has been saved from difficulty by his father, whose name is made known by his father, is not born in the race of mankind. (28) I will follow the conduct of those who acquire riches for themselves with reputation and remove themselves their own difficulties. (29)

Markandeya said: - O Muni, when repeatedly requested by his father he said so the king placed his son Marutta on the throne. (30) Having obtained this kingdom, with the consent of his father, from his grandfather he fully contributed to the joy of his kinsmen. (31) King Karandhama too, restraining his mind, body and speech, retired to woods with Veera for carrying on hard austerities for a thousand years and then renouncing his body the king repaired to the region of Sakra. (33) His wife Veera, covered with matted locks and impurities, carried on penances for another hundred celestial years. (34) Wishing the same region with her high-souled lord in heaven, she lived on fruits and roots, resided in the hermitage of Bhargava in the midst of the wives of the twice-born and engaged herself in their service. (35)




KROUSHTHUKI said: - O revered Sir, you have described to me in full the story of Karandhama as well as that of Avikshita. (1) I wish now to hear the story of the high-souled king Marutta, Avikshita's son. I have heard he was greatly energetic, lord Paramount, noble, heroic, beautiful, highly intelligent, conversant with piety. He performed many religious acts and governed well the earth. (2-3)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having obtained the kingdom from his grand-father with the consent of his father he governed it piously like a father taking care of his own begotten sons. (4) He duly performed many Yajnas terminated with gifts and gladly carried out the command of Ritwikas and priests. (5) His wheel was unobstructed in the seven insular continents and his movement was unimpeded in heaven, Patala and water. (6) Having obtained riches, O Vipra, he duly performed his own actions and propitiated the gods headed by Indra with Yajnas. (7) The inferior castes too zealously engaged in their respective duties, and performed, with the wealth obtained from him, Rishtha and Purtha ceremonies. (8) The earth being governed by the high-souled Marutta the celestial region, with its inhabitants, grew prosperous, O foremost of the twice-born. (9) He not only surpassed all the kings of the earth but with sacrifices even the king of the gods, the performer of a hundred Yajnas. (10) His Ritwika was the high-souled ascetic Samvartta, the son of Angiras and the brother of Vrihaspati. (11) He broke down the golden mountain Munjavan, where the celestials used to go for he had pilfered the conch shell of that king. (12) O twice-born one, by giving away lands in his Yajna he pleased all the ascetics. (13) All the Rishis sing fully the story of Marutta and read it as well, (14) "There is no other king on this earth who can perform Yajnas like Marutta, in whose Yajna all the Rishis have been pleased. (15) He distributed Soma juice amongst all the gods headed by Shakra and Dakshinas amongst all the twice-born. (16) In the Yajna of what king like that of Marutta will the twice-born one leave aside profuse gold in houses filled with jewels? (17) All his palaces were made of gold. All the three Varnas gained something or other from him and equally gave it away. (18) All those men, who had their ends achieved with the remnant left off by him, performed many Yajnas therewith in different countries. (19) O foremost of Munis, while he was reigning and governing his subjects an ascetic came to him and said: -(20) "O king, having seen a host of ascetics assailed by the poison of serpents, elated with pride your grand-mother has communicated this to you. (21) 'Having governed the earth well your grand-father has gone to heaven. I too, incapable of carrying on penances, am living in the hermitage of Urva. (22) O king, yourself governing the kingdom of your grand¬father, I see an irregularity (that never took place during the regime of) your predecessors.

(23) Forsooth, you have been blindly attached to the objects of enjoyment and have lost all control over senses, since you do not understand who are wicked and who are not. (24) Having come from Patala the serpents have bitten seven Muni boys and vitiated the water.

(25) They have also desecrated the purified Havi with urine, excreta etc. Perceiving your shortcoming do you soon offer food to the serpents. (26) These Munis are capable of consuming the serpents - but they have no right in this - it is within your province. (37) O king, the children of the kings should so long enjoy as long as the water of installation does not fall on their heads. (28) (They should always think), "Who are my friends? Who is my enemy? What is the measure of the enemy's strength? Who am I? Who are my ministers? What kings are on my side? (29) What man in this city or in the kingdom has been dissatisfied with me or alienated from me by the enemies? What is the matter with the enemies? (30) Who performs religious acts? Who is ignorant? Who behaves well? Who is to be punished? Who is to be protected? What persons should be looked after by me? (31) For fear of the break of treaty, a king, understanding well the time and place, should send spies to bring him intelligence. (33) A king should always engage spies (to ascertain the conduct of) ministers and others. (33) Having his mind daily engaged in such actions, a king should spend his days and nights and should not indulge in enjoyments. (34) O king, the kings live not for enjoyment but for suffering pain and for the protection of the earth and virtue. (35) If a king maintains well this earth and observes his duties, he suffers great trouble in this world but attains to supreme delight in the next. (36) Understanding this and relinquishing all pleasures, O king, you should promise to undergo every trouble for governing the earth. (37) This great calamity of the Rishis that has

come from the serpents during your rule, you do not know, O king. (38) What is the use of speaking more? Inflict punishment on the wicked and protect the good. You are the king and are entitled to the sixth portion of virtue. (39) By not protecting them and subduing the wicked you will be visited by all sins. Do this if you like. (40) I have thus communicated all to you. I am your grand-mother. Do this if you like, O king. (41)




Markandeya said: - Hearing the words of the ascetic the king was filled with shame. Then saying, "Fie on me who am negligent" and sighing he took up his bow. (1) Thereupon speedily repairing to the hermitage of Aurva he touched the feet of his father's mother Veera with his head. (2) The ascetics too duly welcomed him. Beholding the seven Rishis bitten by the serpents on the ground the King blamed himself in their presence.

He said: - "May the entire world with gods, demons and men see how I deal with the wicked serpents who have disregarded my prowess and proved hostile to the Brahmanas. (3-5)

Markandeya said: - Having said this, the king, in anger, took up the weapon called Samvartaka for the destruction of the innumerable serpents living in Patala. (6) Thereupon O Vipra, there was a conflagration all around the city of Nagas, on its being continually burnt down by the effulgence of the great weapon. (7) Being assailed by that weapon the serpents began to give vent to words as "O father! O mother! O child!". (8) Some with their tails burnt, some with their hoods burnt, taking their wives and sons with them, keeping aside their ornaments and clothes and renouncing Patala proceeded to seek refuge with Bhamini, the mother of Marutta, who had formerly promised them protection. (9-10) Having approached her they all, stricken with fear, saluting her, said with suppressed words "Remember what you said to us before. (11) Formerly we worshipped you in Rasatala for something; the time for that is now come. Save us, O mother of heroes. (12) O queen, stop your son, save our lives. The entire region of the serpents is being burnt down by the fire of his weapon. (13) Save you there is no other refuge for us, who are being thus consumed by your son. Have pity on us, O illustrious lady". (14) Hearing their words and remembering her former words the chaste lady addressed the following words respectfully to her husband. (15)

Bhamini said: - Formerly in Patala, the serpents welcoming you addressed to you some words regarding your son. (16) They are now being consumed by his energy and have come here in fear. Formerly I promised them protection. (17) Those who have sought my protection have also sought your protection for observing the same religious life with you I am now under your protection. (18) Therefore stop your son Marutta. At your words and requesting me he will, forsooth, be pacified. (19)

Avikshita said: - For their great iniquity Marutta has been worked up with anger. Irrepressible is the ire of my son, I think. (20)

The Serpents said: - O king, we have sought refuge with thee. Do thou show us the favour; the use of arms is for the protection of the afflicted. (21)

Markandeya said: - Hearing the words of the serpents who came for protection and being requested by his wife the highly illustrious Avikshita said: -(22) "O gentle lady, I shall soon go and request your son to save the serpents. Those, who seek protection, should never be forsaken. (23) If he does not withdraw his weapon at my words I shall oppose the weapon of my son with mine". (24) Thereupon taking up his bow, Avikshita, the foremost of Kshatriyas, speedily left for the hermitage of Bhargava along with his wife. (25)




Markandeya said: - He saw his son with a most excellent bow, his fierce weapon spreading its fire upon all the quarters, vomitting forth great fire burning down the entire earth and reaching the heart of Patala, irrepressible and dreadful. (1-2) Beholding the frowning face of the king, he said: - "You should not be angry, O Marutta; take away your weapon. (3) Intelligent greatly (as you are) you have carelessly broken down the order of creatures." Hearing the words of his father and looking at him repeatedly, he with his bow, saluting him

reverentially said: - "O father, the serpents have greatly offended me. (4-5) During my rule they, disregarding my prowess and coming to Saptasrama, (hermitage) have bitten the ascetic boys. (6) O king, during my regime, these wicked (serpents) have spoiled the Havis kept in the hermitages of the ascetics. (7) They all have also spoiled the tanks. For this, O father, you should not speak any thing. You should not stop me from slaying these serpents, the killers of Brahmanas. (8)

Avikshita said: - If they have killed the Vipras they will go to hell after death. Now obey my words and restrain your weapon. (9)

Marutta said: - I too shall also go to hell if I do not try to bring the wicked to bay. Do not prevent me therefore, O father. (10)

Avikshita said: - All these serpents have sought refuge with me. Out of honour to me do you withhold your weapon. What is the use of being angry, O king? (11)

Marutta said: - I shall never forgive these wicked fellows who have committed a great iniquity; disregarding my own duty how can I satisfy your words? (12) A king, who punishes those who deserve punishment and protects those who are good, attains to sacred regions. One, who neglects this duty, goes to hell. (13)

Markandeya said: - Although he was thus repeatedly prevented by his father the son did not withhold his weapon. He then again said: -(14) "Although prevented by me you are still bent upon killing the serpents, who in fear have sought refuge with me. I shall then adopt the remedial measure. (15) I have also learnt the use of arms; it is not you alone who are an expert in it. O wicked one, what is your prowess before me? (16)

MARKANDEYA said: - O foremost of Munis, thereupon Avikshita, with his eyes reddened with rage, took up the weapons of Kala. (17) He then set to the bow the highly powerful and most excellent weapon of Kala capable of burning down the enemies. (18) Assailed by Samvarta weapon the earth was agitated. And when the Kala weapon was taken up all the mountains were agitated. (19) Beholding the deadly weapon uplifted by his father Marutta said aloud: - "I have taken up this weapon for punishing the wicked and not for killing you. Why do you therefore discharge the deadly weapon at me, your son, observant of his own duties and always obedient to you? (20-21) O great one, my duty is to protect my subjects; for whose destruction have you taken up this weapon?" (22)

Avikshita said: - I have made this exertion for protecting them who have sought my shelter. Thou art their destroyer; do not save me. (23) Either having slain me with the power of your weapon do thou kill the wicked serpents, or having slain thee with the strength of my arms I shall protect the great serpents. (24) O fie on the life of that man who does not help him who seeks his shelter even if he be one of the enemies. (25) I am a Kshatriya and they in fear have sought my shelter; thou art their enemy. Why shouldst thou not be slain by me? (26)

Marutta said: - He, who puts in impediments in the way of governing the subjects, be he a friend, a relative, a father or the preceptor, should be slain by the king. (27) I shall therefore strike thee, O father. Do not be offended. I am observing my own duty and am not angry with thee. (28)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon beholding them both bent upon killing one another all the Munis, Bhargavas and others came there. (29)

They said to them: - "You should not discharge your weapon at your father and you should not also kill your son of illustrious deeds". (30)

Marutta said: - The wicked should be slain by me and the earth should be protected. These are wicked serpents. Where is my folly, O ye twice-born ones? (31)

Avikshita said: - My duty also it to protect them who have sought refuge with me. O ye Vipras, my son has committed an offence for he is about to kill my dependants. (32)

The Rishis said: - Tell these serpents whose eyes are rolling with terror that we shall revive the Vipras who have been bitten by the wicked serpents. (33) No use therefore of fighting, O

ye foremost of kings. Be reconciled. Both of you are of firm promises and are conversant with your duties. (34)

Markandeya said: - Then Veera, approaching her grand-son, said: - "O child, at my words you have addressed yourself for destroying these serpents. (35) My object has been accomplished, for the Brahmanas, who were dead, have regained their lives. You should therefore save them who have sought your protection. (36)

Bhamini said: - I was formerly welcomed by them living in Patala and therefore my husband was engaged in this work by myself. (37) Therefore, O worshipful one, it is proper that there should be an end of fight between my husband and son, your grand-son and son. (38)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon with heavenly medicine and by taking away their poison the serpents revived those Vipras. (39) Thereupon the king Marutta saluted the feet of his sire. He too embracing him said: -(40) "Vanquish your enemies and govern for long the earth. Enjoy with your sons and grandsons and may you have no enemies". (41) Thereupon commanded by the twice born and Veera those two kings, riding their own cars and Bhamini repaired to their own city. (42) And Veera too, the foremost of the pious ladies, carrying on hard austerities, great and chaste as she was, attained to the same region with her husband. (43) The king Marutta too governed the earth righteously, vanquished his six classes of enemies and enjoyed diverse pleasures. (44) The great Prabhavati, the daughter of Bidarbha king and Souviri, the daughter of Suvira became his wives. (45) Sukeshi, the daughter of Ketuvirjja, the king of Magadha, became his wife as well as Kaikeyi, the daughter of Sindhuvirjja the king of Madra, (46) Sourindhri of Kekaya country, Vapushmati, the daughter of Sindhu, king and the beautiful daughter of the king of Chedis became his wives. (47) O twice-born one, the king begat on them eighteen sons. The foremost and the eldest of them was Narishwanta. (48) Of such energy was the highly powerful king Marutta that his wheel was unobstructed in the seven insular continents. (49) Like that royal saint of incomparable energy and prowess there had been no king in the past nor will be any in future. (50) Hearing the account of this high-souled Marutta, O foremost of the twice born, one gets the best birth and is freed from all sins. (51)




Kroushthuki said: - O reverend Sir, you have recounted in full the story of Marutta. I wish to hear of an account of his progeny. (1) O great Muni, I wish to hear of those of his children who were powerful and became kings. Do you relate it. (2)

Markandeya said: - Marutta had a son celebrated by the name of Narishwanta; of the eighteen sons he was the eldest and foremost. (3) Marutta, the foremost of the Kshatriyas, ruled over the earth for eighty-five thousand years. (4) Having governed his kingdom righteously, performed many Yajnas and placed on the throne his eldest son Narishwanta he retired Into woods. (5) Having carried on hard austerities with a concentrated mind and filled the heaven and earth with his fame he ascended the heaven, O Vipra. (6) Observing the conduct of his father as well as that of other kings his son, the intelligent Narishwanta, began to think. (7) "In this family, my predecessors, the high-souled kings, celebrated many Yajnas and righteously governed the earth. (8) They gave away riches and never fled away from battles. Am I capable of following the conduct of those high-souled ones? (9) I wish to follow his actions and imitate his religious acts. If I do not do this what else shall I do? (10) What credit does a king deserve if he righteously rules the earth? For by not governing the earth well the sinful king goes to hell. (11) While they have wealth, what wonder is there if the king performs great Yajnas and makes charities? (12) Pride of birth, shame, anger towards enemies and one's own duties prevent a man from flying away from the battle-field. (13) All these were completely accomplished by my ancestors and my father Marutta. Who can imitate them? (14) What more can I do which had not been done by my forefathers? They all performed Yajnas, made charities, never came from the battle-field, were great warriors and manly. I shall do such works as had not been attempted by them. (15-16) My predecessors celebrated Yajnas no doubt but they could not do so uninterruptedly. I shall do this. (17)

Markandeya said: - Thinking thus that king undertook a Yajna adorned with the gifts of riches the like of which had not been performed by any. (18) He gave away profuse riches for the maintenance of the twice-born; the king then gave hundred fold food in that Yajna. (19) He then conferred upon each man of the earth kine, raiments, ornaments and store-houses of corn. (20) Thereupon when that king again undertook the celebration of another Yajna and when it was taken in hand he invited many Brahmanas but could not get any. (21) Every one, of those Brahmanas whom the king invited to take up the duties of a Ritwika, said to him. "We are engaged elsewhere in another Yajna. (22) Request some body else, O king. The riches, that you gave us in your Yajna, have not been exhausted as yet". (23)

MARKANDEYA said: - When the king of the whole earth did not get Brahmanas to act as Ritwikas he began to give away gifts at the outside altar. (24) Still, they, who had their temples filled with wealth, did not accept them. He, then with a view to make gifts unto the twice-born with a poor heart, said. (25) "Oh! it is a highly grand thing that there is no poor Brahmana on this earth. But the treasury has grown useless and fruitless is the object of those who perform Yajnas. (26) No one will require a Ritwika for the people of the world will not celebrate Yajnas. We shall not be able, even if we wish, to make gifts unto the twice-born." (27)

MARKANDEYA said: - Thereupon saluting repeatedly with reverence some Brahmanas he made them Ritwikas in his Yajna and they began that great ceremony. (28) It was a great wonder that when that king undertook that Yajna there were many men on earth engaged in similar ceremonies. (29) (So) there did not assemble a concourse of the twice-born. Few Brahmanas came there for accepting gifts. (30) Whenever the king Narishwanta engaged in celebrating Yajnas many people, with the money given by him, undertook numberless such ceremonies on earth. (31) When the king Narishwanta, O Muni, undertook the performance of a Yajna there took place simultaneously eighteen Kotis of Yajnas in the west, seven in the north, fourteen in the south, and fifteen in the north. (32-33) O Vipra, such was the virtuous king Narishwanta, the son of Marutta, in the days of yore renowned for his strength and bravery. (34)




MARKANDEYA said: - Narishwanta's son Dama, the subduer of wicked enemies, had the strength of Sakra and the compassion and character of an ascetic. (1) The king (Narishwanta) begat him on Indrasena. The highly illustrious one lived in his mother's womb for nine years.

(2) As he suffered endurance by living (so long) in his mother's womb the prince will be patient by nature. (3) Then his priest, conversant with the present, past and future, gave the name of Dama to the son of Narishwanta. (4) The prince Dama learnt in full the science of archery from the king Brishaparva. (5) He received in full the lessons in diverse arms from Dundubhi, the foremost of Daityas living in the forests of ascetics. (6) He learnt the Vedas and all their divisions from Sakti and that self-controlled (prince) received lessons in yoga from the royal saint Arshmishena. (7) Sumana, at the Sayamvara, invited by her father, accepted him as her husband - accomplished, high-souled, highly powerful and an expert in the use of arms as he was, in the presence of all men who had come there for her. She was the daughter of the powerful Charukarman, the king of Dasharna. (8-9) The highly powerful and heroic son of the king Madra was greatly attached to Sumana. (10) And so were the great bowman and the highly intelligent prince Vapushman, the son of Sangkrandana and the prince of Vidarbha. (11) Seeing Dama, the subduer of wicked enemies, selected by her they began to consult with each other, assailed by Cupid as they were: -(12) ''Taking away this beautiful girl by force from him we shall go to our houses. His amongst us this fair one will be the religiously wedded wife whom she will select of her own accord, according to the rules of Sayamvara. (13-14) If she, of inebriate eyes, does not like any one of us, she then must marry him who will slay Dama." (15)

Markandeya said: - Having made this resolution the three princes carried away that fair one from the side of Dama. (16) Thereupon some kings, who were on his side, lamented much as well as some others who were the arbitrators. (17) O great Muni, beholding them sorry on all sides, Dama said to them. (18)

Dama said: - O ye kings, Sayamvara is mentioned in the list of religious acts. Do ye consider whether her being carried away by force is fair or wrong. (19) If (to save her) is wrong I should not take any step and must marry another wife. And if it is fair - fie on me if with my life I cannot save her by subduing the enemies. (20) Thereupon the king Charudharma, the lord of Dasharna, making them all silent, addressed the assembly, O great Muni. (21) "Do ye consider, O ye kings, what Dama has said relating to what is right and wrong so that my virtue may not suffer deterioration". (22)

Markandeya said: - Thereupon some kings said to that lord of the earth: - "There is also sanction for Gandharva marriage that is brought about by attachment towards one other. (23) This is good for the Kshatriyas not for Vaishyas, Sudras and Brahmanas. Your daughters marriage has been celebrated with Dama. (24) Therefore rightly your daughter belongs to Dama. Only he, who is possessed by desire, does otherwise. (25) Then those high-souled kings, who were for the words of the king of Dasharna, said: -(26) "They have foolishly said that the Gandharva form of marriage is the best for Kshatriyas. There is another form of marriage called Rakshasa for the Kshatriyas. (27) He, who has taken her away by force after slaying all the intruders, may also marry her according to the Rakshasa form of marriage. (28) This is the best form of marriage for the Kahatriyas - the other one is the second. This is the duty of the Kshatriyas as laid down by Mahananda and others. (29)

Markandeya said: - Then upon the kings, who had been addressed before, again said words, maintaining their caste and religion out of regard for each other. (30) "True it is that the Rakshasa form of marriage is also sanctioned for the Kshatriyas. But he, of all men, was selected by that maiden as her fitting husband. (31) That is called the Rakshasa form of marriage when one takes away a girl by force after having slain all the relations of her father. But it is not so when she has accepted a husband. (32) In the presence of all the kings she selected Dama. How can here be then either the Gandharva or Rakshasa form of marriage?

(33) Maidenhood does not hold in the case of married women. By marriage the girls are allied to (other) kings. (34) They have taken her away by force from Dama; they have done this by force but it is not fair. (33)

Markandeya said: - Hearing this Dama had his eyes reddened with ire. He then set aright his bow and said: -(36) "If I behold my wife being carried away by powerful men what is the use of my arms who am shorn of manliness? (37) Oh fie on me! fie on my arms! fie on my bravery! fie on my arrows! fie on my bow! and fie on my birth in the family of the high-souled Marutta.

(38) If these foolish and powerful men survive after taking away my wife useless is my proficiency in the use of bow." (39) Having addressed these words to the kings headed by Mahananda, the powerful Dama, subduer of great enemies, again said. (40)

DAMA said: - How can this all beautiful maiden, of inebriate eyes and born in this family, be the wife by birth of this one or that one? Thinking this, O kings, do ye so fight in battle that ye may, after vanquishing me, make this respectable lady your wife. (42)

Markandeya said: - Having said this he began to shower arrows covering therewith all the kings like darkness. (43) All those heroic kings too discharged arrows, Saktis, clubs, etc. But Dama cut off easily all those weapons discharged by them. (44) O Muni, they too cut off the arrows shot by him. And Narishwanta's son too cut off the arrows discharged by those kings.

(45) When there was going on a conflict between Dama and all the kings entered there Mahananda with a dagger in his hand. (46) Beholding him approach with a dagger in his hand in that great encounter Purandara discharged a downpour of arrows like a shower. (47) Those weapons and the network of arrows Mahananda, with his dagger, immediately cut off. (48) Thereupon getting in anger upon Dama's car the highly powerful Mahananda engaged in an encounter with him. (49) Mahananda fighting in many ways Dama, out of light-handedness, discharged an arrow, burning like the fire of dissolution, at his heart. (50) Thereupon taking it out of his heart which was cut Mahananda threw a shining sword at Dama. (51) Dama, with his Sakti, cut this off which was like a fire-brand and about to fall. He also cut off Mahananda's head with a Vetasa leaf. (52) On Mahananda bring slain all the kings fled away. Then stood there Vapushman, the king of Kundina. (53) Then the son of the king of Deccan, elated with the pride of strength, coming to the battle-field, fought with Dama. (54) The light-

handed heroe (Dama) cut off in battle his dreadful sword, the head of his charioteer and his flag-staff. (55) Having his sword shattered he took up his club of many thorns. That too he immediately cut off from his hand. (56) And as soon as Vapushman was about to take up another powerful weapon Dama, piercing him with an arrow, immediately struck him down on earth. (57) Falling down on earth he began to tremble with all his limbs dislocated. Then the princes made up their minds to fly from the battle-field. (58) Then seeing them thus disinclined to fight, leaving them behind and taking Sumana the self-controlled Dama went away. (59) Then the king of Dasharna duly celebrated the marriage between Dama and Sumana. (60) After his marriage Dama lived for some time in the city of the king of Dasharna and then with his wife went to his own city. (61) Then conferring upon him elephants, horses, chariots, kine, asses, camels, female servants, and many servants, clothes, raiments, bows and vessels filled with many excellent things the king of Dasharna sent him away. (62-63)




Markandeya said: - O great Muni, having obtained Sumana as his wife the prince saluted the feet of his father and mother. (1) Sumana, of fair eye-brows, also saluted her father-in-law and mother-in-law. They too, O Vipra, also welcomed them with blessings. (2) On his marriage and return from the city of the king of Dasharna there took place a great festival in Narishwanta's city. (3) Hearing of the alliance of his son with the king of Dasharna and the defeat by the kings the emperor Narishwanta was greatly delighted. (4) The prince Dama sported with Sumana in gardens, palaces, forest-lands and in the valleys of the mountains. (5) Having enjoyed many pleasures and grown old the king Narishwanta installed his son Dama in the kingdom. (7) His wife, the illustrious Indrasena also followed him to the forest and led with him the Vanaprashtha mode of life. (8) Vapushman, the son of Sangkrandana, the king of Deccan, went to that forest for hunting followed by a small retinue. (9) Seeing the ascetic Narishwanta covered with dust and his wife Indrasena, greatly reduced by hard austerities he asked him, "Who are you? Are you a Vipra, Kshatriya or a forest ranger or a Vaisya who is leading the Vanaprashtha mode of life? Tell me this". (10-11) Thereupon the king, observant of the vow of silence, gave him no reply. Indrasena communicated unto him everything duly. (12)

Markandeya said: -Being informed that Narishwanta was the father of his enemy, Vapushman, saying "I have got you" held him by the matted locks. (13) Indrasena crying aloud 'Alas! Alas!' in suppressed words he took up his sword, and said: -(14) "He is the father of Dama who vanquished me in battle and carried away my Sumana. I shall kill him; let Dama save him. (15) I shall slay the father of the wicked one who vanquished the entire host of kings assembled for securing the maiden. (16) I shall kill the father of my enemy, the wicked Dama who fought with me in battle. Let him prevent me". (17)

Markandeya said: - Having said this the wicked king Vapushman cut off his head whilst Indrasena kept up crying . (18) Thereupon all the ascetics and other dwellers of the forest said to him, "Fie on you! Fie on you!" Seeing it he left the forest for his own city. (19) On his departure, Indrasena, heaving a deep sigh, despatched a Sudra ascetic to her son. (20) She said, "Go immediately and communicate to my son my words. You know everything about my husband's affair. What more shall I speak? (21) Still you should inform my son of what I say, with great sorrow on beholding the wicked condition of the king. (22) He is the king, lord and the protector of the four Varnas. How fair it is that he does not protect the ascetics living in hermitages? (23) While I was crying "O lord! O lord!" Vapushman, holding my husband Narishwanta, engaged in ascetic observances, by the hair, killed him without any fault. You have gained this reputation as a king during your rule. (24-25) Such being the case, behave yourself in such a way that virtue may not disappear. I should not speak (more) in this. I am a female ascetic. (26) Your father, an aged ascetic, has been killed, though he was innocent. Think what you should do in this. (27) You have heroic ministers well read in all branches of learning. Discussing with them do what is proper. (28) O king, this is not in our province who are ascetics; you are to do this. Hear of the conduct of other kings. (29) Viduratha's father was killed by a Yavana whose, family was destroyed (in turn) by his son. (30) The father of Jambha, the king of Asuras, was bitten by serpents. And so by him all the serpents living in Patala were killed. Hearing that his father has been killed by a Rakshasa Parashara

completely destroyed the race of Rakshasas with fire. (32) A Kshatriya cannot brook the insult offered to any other member of his family what to speak of the destruction of his father? (33) In this your father has not been killed nor a weapon has struck him but me thinks you have been killed and wounded with a weapon. (34) Who fears him who has placed his weapon on the dwellers of the forest? Will you fear when your son is killed? (35) Therefore, O king, you should mete out a condign punishment to Vapushman along with his servants, kinsmen and friends. (36) Having despatched Indradas with this intelligence, that great lady, embracing the body of her husband, entered into fire. (37)




MARKANDEYA said: - Being commanded by Indrasena the Sudra ascetic went there and communicated the destruction of his father unto Dama. (1) Being informed by the ascetic of the death of his father, Dama burnt with rage like fire excited by clarified butter. (2) O great Muni, being consumed by the fire of anger and pressing one hand against the other he gave vent to the following words. (3) "In spite of my existence, his son, my father was killed by that greatly cruel one, throwing an insult at my family, like one having none. (4) If I forgive him I shall do so for want of manliness; my duty is to punish the wicked and help the good. (5) What is the use of lamenting much as 'Oh (father)'. I should now do what should be done in this matter. (6) If I do not bring about the gratification of my father with the blood coming out from Vapushman's body I shall enter into fire. (7) I shall perform the water-giving ceremony of my father with his blood slain in battle; I shall feed well the twice-born with his flesh. Or else I shall enter into fire. (8) Even if the Asuras, Gods, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Vidyadharas and all the Siddhas come to his help, even them with him I shall reduce to ashes with my weapons.

(9) Having slain the coward, sinful and dishonest king of Deccan in battle I shall enjoy the earth fully. If I cannot kill him I shall enter the fire. (10) I shall slay today the highly wicked one together with his friends, relatives, infantry, cavalry and the army, who slew the aged ascetic, observing the bow of silence, living in the forest and always extending words of blessings. (11) Taking up their bow and sword, riding this chariot and confronting the army of the enemy I shall carry on an onslaught there. All the gods assembled there will see it. (12) I shall lead this great army, brought up by myself, for the immediate and absolute destruction of the families of those who will help him while engaged in an encounter with me today. (13) If the king of gods comes to the battle with the thunderbolt in his hand, the king of Pitris taking up, in anger, his dreadful rod and if the king of riches and Varuna endeavour to save him still I shall kill him with sharpened shafts. (14) May the vultures be satisfied with his flesh and blood by whom despite my existence, his son, my father has been slain. He had his mind under control, was freed from folly, had his movements from the forest to heaven and used to live on fruits dropped from trees and was friendly towards all creatures. (15)




Markandeya said: - Having made this promise Narishwanta's son Dama, with his eyes rolling in anger, held his beards with his hand. (1) Bewailing the death of his father and censuring destiny he said to all the ministers and summoned his priest. (2)

Dama said: - Tell me now what is proper. My father has gone to heaven. You have heard what the Sudra ascetic has said. (3) That king was an old ascetic, was leading the Vanaprashtha mode of life and observing the vow of silence. My mother Indrasena has communicated everything to me in truth as what should be done to Vapushman. That wicked one, taking up his sword, and holding by the hand, killed the king as if he had none. My good mother has addressed the word 'fie' to me. (4-6) Having embraced the unfortunate Narishwanta shorn of all beauty she entered fire and attained to the region of gods. (7) I shall to-day encompass what has been said by my mother. Arrange therefore the elephants, cars, horses and the army. (8) Without vanquishing my father's enemy, slaying the destroyer of my father and carrying out the words of my mother why shall I try to live? (9)

Markandeya said: - Hearing his words, the ministers with the servants and army, having their minds exercised, began to lament, exclaiming 'Alas! Alas!" (10) Placing the king before them

and obtaining blessings from the priests cognisant of the present, past and future, they, with the army, issued out. (11) Sighing like the king of serpents and killing the army of Soumapala and others in Jamya country Dama quickly approached Vapushman. (12) Sangkrandana's son Vapushman was informed that Dama with his army and ministers had come. (13) Without the least agitation of the mind he commanded his army and sent an emissary out of the city (with the news). (14) "O Kshatrya, come quickly to me; Narishwanta, with his wife, is expecting you.

(15) These ray sharpened arrows, shot off my bow, piercing your body, will drink your blood in battle. (16)

MARKANDEYA said: - Hearing all this from the messenger and remembering his former promise Dama went there speedily, sighing like a serpent. (17)

Inviting him to battle he said: "He, who is a man, does not boast". Then there arose a great encounter between Dama and Vapushman. (18) The charioteer fought with the charioteer, the elephant with the elephant and horse with the horse. There thus arose a great encounter, O saint. (19) O Brahman, Dama fighting in anger in the presence of all the gods, Siddhas and Gandharvas the earth trembled. (20) Neither the charioteer, nor the elephant, nor the horse could stand his arrows. Then Vapushman's commander-in-chief fought with Dama. (21) Dama struck his shaft deep into his heart. On his death the army took to their heels. Then Dama said to his master (Vapushman): -(22) "Having slain my ascetic father, who had no weapon and who was carrying on penances where do you go, O wicked one? Return if you are a Kshatriya". (23)

Markandeya said: -Thereupon coming back the proud (Vapushman) with his younger brother, son, friends and relatives, fought with him. (24) Then the sky and the quarters were covered with shafts discharged oft his bow. He also covered Dama with his car and horse with a network of arrows. (25) Thereupon in anger begotten by the death of his father Dama cut off those arrows and wounded his limbs with his own. (26) With one arrow he despatched to the abode of Yama his seven sons, brothers, relatives and friends. (27) On the death of his sons and relatives the car-warrior Vapushman fought with Dama in the battle-field with arrows resembling serpents. (28) O great Muni, he too cut off his arrows. Both of them, desirous of killing each other, then fought fiercely. (29) Having their bows shattered with the discharge of arrows, those two highly powerful heroes fought with each other with up-lifted swords. (30) Thinking for a moment of the destruction of his father, the king, in the forest and holding him by the hair and throwing him on earth, placing his foot on his head and raising up his hand Dama said: -(31) "Behold, ye gods, men, Siddhas and Pannagas, I am tearing off the heart of the Kshatriya Vapushman". (32)

MARKANDEYA said: - Having said this Dama cut off his heart with his sword. With a view to bathe in his blood the gods did not prevent him. (33) Thereupon with the blood of Vapushman he performed the water-giving ceremony and with his flesh he offered Pinda. (34) He fed the Brahmanas and Rakshasas, and then being freed from debts to his father he left for his own city. (35) Such were the kings of the solar dynasty as well as other intelligent heroes, performers of Yajnas and well read in the Vedas and religious books. I do not like to enumerate them. Hearing of their account a man is released from sins. (36-37)




The Birds said: - Having said this and left the company of Kroushthuki the great ascetic Markandeya performed the mid-day rites. (1) We have also heard from you, O great ascetic, what you have said. This is the Siddhi without beginning described formerly by the Self-Sprung Deity. (2) And which you communicated unto the ascetic Markandeya, sacred, and auspicious as it is and which gives longevity and the accomplishment of all objects. (3) Hearing and reading the four questions which you put in the beginning people are freed from all sins. (4) O Muni, you have described unto us the conversation between the father and the son, the creation of the Sell-Sprung Brahma, the origin of Manus and the history of the kings. What more we wish to hear? Hearing all these or reciting them in an assembly a man, with all his sins washed, finds himself at one with Brahman. (5-6) Of the eighteen Puranas enumerated by Brahma, the seventh is known widely as Markandeya. (7) They are Brahma,

Padma, Vishnu, Siva, Bhagavat, and Naradiya and the seventh is Markandeya. (8) The eighth Purana is Agni and Bhavishya is the ninth; the tenth is Brahma Vaivarta and the eleventh is Nrisingha. (9) The twelfth is Varaha and Skanda is the thirteenth of them; Vamana is the fourteenth and Karma is the fifteenth. (10) Then follow Matsya, Garuda, and Brahmanda. He, who reads the names of the eighteen Puranas and recites them three times a day, reaps the fruit of a horse sacrifice. The Purana, that has the four qualities is called Markandeya. (11-12) On hearing this, the sin accumulated for a hundred Koti years is dissipated. The sins of Brahmanicidi and others, at well as other inauspicious things are dissipated like cotton driven by the wind. By hearing it one gets the piety equal to that acquired by bathing at the holy shrine of Pushkara. (13-14) A barren woman, or one whose child dies at birth, if she hears this truly, gets a son crowned with all marks, as well as corns, riches and the eternal heaven. (15) Hearing this, a man even if he has offended the gods, is freed from all sins and flourishes in heaven. (16) O foremost of the twice-born, he gets long life, freedom from diseases, wealth, corns, children and a continuous progeny. (17) Hear O Vipra, after listening to this what a man should do. A wise man, after consecrating fire, should perform Homa. (18) O foremost of Munis, meditating on this Purana in the lotus of the heart one should adore Gavinda with perfumeries, garlands and raiments &c.. (19) O foremost of Munis, he should then worship a reciter with his wife and then confer upon him a milch cow with its calf. (20) O Vipra, the kings should, as much as lies in their power, make gifts of corn-fields, gold, silver, villages and beasts of burden. (21) Having pleased the reciters he should pronounce 'Swasti, Swasti!' Without having pleased the reciter if one listens to even one verse he will never attain to piety. Such a man is designated by the wise as the purloiner of scriptures. The gods are not pleased with him and the ancestral manes do not accept the things offered by him in Sraddhas. The thief of scriptures does not reap the fruit of bathing at holy shrines and is censured by the reciters of the Vedas. (22-24) After the completion of Markandeya a wise man performs a festival and makes a gift of a milch-cow for being released from all sins. (25) He also gives away clothes and jewels unto the twice-born with their wives, as well as golden ear-rings, turbans, clean beds gold-coins, seven sorts of corns, brass vessels for taking food and vessels for clarified butter. (26-27) Doing this, O foremost of the twice-born, a man achieves all his objects. Hearing the reciting of all these Puranas duly a man reaps the fruits of a thousand horse sacrifices, and a hundred Rajashuya ceremonies. He does not stand in fear of death or hell. (28-29) Being freed from all sins he purifies the present and future generations; forsooth the continuity of his family is never disturbed. (30) He goes to the region of Indra and the eternal region of Brahma; there spoken of highly he will again be born as a man. (31) Thus by listening to the recitation of Puranas one attains to most excellent yoga. Gifts should not be made unto an atheist, adulterer, vilifier of the Vedas, unto him who speaks against his preceptor, him who breaks his vow, forsakes his parents and steals gold; unto him who shall disregard an honourable man and speaks against his kinsmen. No gifts should be made unto these even if vital breath comes up to the throat. (32-34) If out of avarice, ignorance or fear one reads it or makes others read, forsooth does he go to hell. (35)

Jaimini said: - "O ye birds, you, out of friendship, have removed that doubt of mine, the solution whereof I did not find in Bharata. Who else will do it? (36) Do ye live long freed from diseases and gifted with wealth. And may your understanding grow in Sankya Yoga. (37) You will be freed from the curse of your father." Having said this he left for his own hermitage. (38)

Thinking of the noble words of the birds the great Jaimini adored the leading twice-born ones. (39)

The End.

Vedic Scriptures